Results of the implementation of a pilot model for the bidirectional screening and joint management of patients with pulmonary tuberculosis and diabetes mellitus in Mexico

PLoS One. 2014 Sep 17;9(9):e106961. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0106961. eCollection 2014.

Abstract

Background: Recently, the World Health Organisation and the International Union Against Tuberculosis and Lung Disease published a Collaborative Framework for the Care and Control of Tuberculosis (TB) and Diabetes (DM) (CFTB/DM) proposing bidirectional screening and joint management.

Objective: To evaluate the feasibility and effectiveness of the CFTB/DM in Mexico.

Design: Prospective observational cohort.

Setting: 15 primary care units in 5 states in Mexico.

Participants: Patients aged ≥20 years diagnosed with DM or pulmonary TB who sought care at participating clinics.

Intervention: The WHO/Union CFTB/DM was adapted and implemented according to official Mexican guidelines. We recruited participants from July 2012 to April 2013 and followed up until March 2014. Bidirectional screening was performed. Patients diagnosed with TB and DM were invited to receive TB treatment under joint management.

Main outcome measures: Diagnoses of TB among DM, of DM among TB, and treatment outcomes among patients with DM and TB.

Results: Of 783 DM patients, 11 (1.4%) were unaware of their TB. Of 361 TB patients, 16 (4.4%) were unaware of their DM. 95 TB/DM patients accepted to be treated under joint management, of whom 85 (89.5%) successfully completed treatment. Multiple linear regression analysis with change in HbA1c and random capillary glucose as dependent variables revealed significant decrease with time (regression coefficients (β) = -0.660, (95% confidence interval (CI), -0.96 to -0.35); and β = -1.889 (95% CI, -2.77 to -1.01, respectively)) adjusting by sex, age and having been treated for a previous TB episode. Patients treated under joint management were more likely to experience treatment success than patients treated under routine DM and TB programs as compared to historical (adjusted OR (aOR), 2.8, 95%CI 1.28-6.13) and same period (aOR 2.37, 95% CI 1.13-4.96) comparison groups.

Conclusions: Joint management of TB and DM is feasible and appears to improve clinical outcomes.

MeSH terms

  • Aged
  • Diabetes Mellitus / diagnosis*
  • Disease Management
  • Humans
  • Mexico
  • Middle Aged
  • Prospective Studies
  • Tuberculosis, Pulmonary / diagnosis*

Grant support

The authors received no specific funding for this work.