Molar-incisor hypomineralization: prevalence, severity and clinical characteristics in 8- to 13-year-old children of Udaipur, India

J Indian Soc Pedod Prev Dent. 2014 Oct-Dec;32(4):322-9. doi: 10.4103/0970-4388.140960.


Background: The last couple of decades has seen an increasing interest in molar-incisor hypomineralization (MIH). Although the reported prevalence of MIH ranges from 2.4% to 40.2% worldwide, very little data is available from India.

Objective: To assess the prevalence, clinical characteristics, distribution, severity and association with caries of MIH defects in children aged 8-13 years of Udaipur, Rajasthan.

Study design: This cross-sectional descriptive study consisted of 1173 children aged 8-13 years selected by random sampling procedure. The European Academy of Pediatric Dentistry criteria were followed for MIH diagnosis. The presence of dental caries and treatment need for MIH-affected teeth were recorded as per the WHO criteria.

Results: The prevalence of MIH in the children examined was 9.46%. Severity of the defects increased with the age of the children. Involvement of incisors increased when more First permanent molars (FPMs) were affected. An average of 3.65 teeth was involved per MIH-affected individual. Significantly larger numbers of mandibular FPMs and maxillary central incisors were diagnosed with MIH. The association of dental caries was significantly higher with MIH-affected FPMs. Primary molars and permanent canines and premolars were also showed MIH like lesions in some of the MIH-affected children.

Conclusion: MIH was observed in about 10% of the children examined. MIH-affected FPMs appear to be more vulnerable to early caries and subsequent pulp involvement with need for extensive dental treatment.

MeSH terms

  • Adolescent
  • Child
  • Dental Enamel Hypoplasia / epidemiology*
  • Dental Enamel Hypoplasia / pathology
  • Female
  • Humans
  • India / epidemiology
  • Male
  • Prevalence
  • Severity of Illness Index