Predictors of nosocomial pneumonia in intracerebral hemorrhage patients: a multi-center observational study

Neurocrit Care. 2015 Apr;22(2):234-42. doi: 10.1007/s12028-014-0065-x.


Background: Nosocomial pneumonia (NP) is a frequent complication among spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage (sICH) patients. This study was aimed at identifying in-hospital risk factors that predispose sICH patients to NP.

Methods: We identified 591 consecutive sICH subjects admitted to six tertiary care hospitals between 2008 and 2012. Information regarding patients' demographics, admission data, laboratory tests, medical history, diagnostic imaging, in-hospital treatments, complications, and outcomes were collected. Using a competing risks analysis, we assessed risk factors associated with NP.

Results: Mean age of the subjects was 68 years; 51 % were female and 76 % were white. One-hundred sixteen (19.6 %) of the sICH patients had NP. In the univariate analysis, variables including age, non-white race, early hospital admission (<6 h after onset), larger hematoma volume, basal ganglia or intraventricular hemorrhage, multisite hemorrhage, in-hospital aspiration, intubation, nasogastric tube placement, hematoma evacuation, high ICH score, ventricular drainage, and tracheostomy had a positive association with NP. However, in the multivariate analysis, only early hospital admission, in-hospital aspiration, intubation, and tracheostomy remained statistically significant predictors (p < 0.05). For patients who survived hospitalization, the median length-of-stay (LOS) with or without NP was 20.0 and 4.0 days, respectively (p < 0.0001). For patients who did not survive to discharge, the median LOS with or without NP was 10.5 and 2.0 days, respectively (p < 0.001).

Conclusions: Independent predictors of NP included early hospital admission, in-hospital aspiration, intubation, and tracheostomy. NP was associated with prolonged hospital LOS.

Publication types

  • Multicenter Study
  • Observational Study
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Aged
  • Aged, 80 and over
  • Cerebral Hemorrhage / epidemiology*
  • Comorbidity
  • Cross Infection / epidemiology*
  • Cross Infection / etiology
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Intubation / adverse effects
  • Intubation / statistics & numerical data*
  • Length of Stay / statistics & numerical data*
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Minnesota / epidemiology
  • Pneumonia / epidemiology*
  • Pneumonia / etiology
  • Risk Factors
  • Tracheostomy / adverse effects
  • Tracheostomy / statistics & numerical data*