Difficult peritonitis cases in children undergoing chronic peritoneal dialysis: relapsing, repeat, recurrent and zoonotic episodes

Pediatr Nephrol. 2015 Sep;30(9):1397-406. doi: 10.1007/s00467-014-2952-y. Epub 2014 Sep 18.


Despite technological improvements in dialysis connectology and dialysis technique, peritonitis remains the most common and most significant complication of peritoneal dialysis (PD) in children. Most children undergoing chronic PD experience none or only one peritonitis episode, while others have multiple episodes or episodes secondary to unusual organisms. Knowledge of potential risk factors and likely patient outcome is imperative if treatment is to be optimized. In this review we will, in turn, describe episodes of peritonitis that are characterized as either relapsing, recurrent, repeat or zoonosis-related to highlight the clinical issues that are commonly encountered by clinicians treating these infections.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Anti-Bacterial Agents / therapeutic use*
  • Child
  • Disease Management
  • Humans
  • Patient Outcome Assessment
  • Peritoneal Dialysis* / adverse effects
  • Peritoneal Dialysis* / methods
  • Peritonitis* / etiology
  • Peritonitis* / microbiology
  • Peritonitis* / physiopathology
  • Peritonitis* / therapy
  • Recurrence
  • Renal Insufficiency, Chronic / therapy*
  • Risk Factors
  • Secondary Prevention / methods*
  • Time Factors


  • Anti-Bacterial Agents