Effect of shisha (waterpipe) smoking on lung functions and fractional exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO) among Saudi young adult shisha smokers

Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2014 Sep 17;11(9):9638-48. doi: 10.3390/ijerph110909638.


Shisha (waterpipe) smoking is becoming a more prevalent form of tobacco consumption, and is growing worldwide, particularly among the young generation in the Middle East. This cross-sectional study aimed to determine the effects of shisha smoking on lung functions and Fractional Exhaled Nitric Oxide (FeNO) among Saudi young adults. We recruited 146 apparently healthy male subjects (73 control and 73 shisha smokers). The exposed group consisted of male shisha smokers, with mean age 21.54 ± 0.41 (mean ± SEM) range 17-33 years. The control group consisted of similar number (73) of non-smokers with mean age 21.36 ± 0.19 (mean ± SEM) range 18-28 years. Between the groups we considered the factors like age, height, weight, gender, ethnicity and socioeconomic status to estimate the impact of shisha smoking on lung function and fractional exhaled nitric oxide. Lung function test was performed by using an Spirovit-SP-1 Electronic Spirometer. Fractional Exhaled Nitric Oxide (FeNO) was measured by using Niox Mino. A significant decrease in lung function parameters FEV1, FEV1/FVC Ratio, FEF-25%, FEF-50%, FEF-75% and FEF-75-85% was found among shisha smokers relative to their control group. There was also a significant reduction in the Fractional Exhaled Nitric Oxide among Shisha smokers compared to control group.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Adolescent
  • Adult
  • Cross-Sectional Studies
  • Exhalation
  • Humans
  • Lung / drug effects*
  • Lung / physiology
  • Male
  • Nitric Oxide / metabolism*
  • Saudi Arabia
  • Smoking / adverse effects*
  • Spirometry
  • Young Adult


  • Nitric Oxide