Defining a standard set of patient-centered outcomes for men with localized prostate cancer

Eur Urol. 2015 Mar;67(3):460-7. doi: 10.1016/j.eururo.2014.08.075. Epub 2014 Sep 16.


Background: Value-based health care has been proposed as a unifying force to drive improved outcomes and cost containment.

Objective: To develop a standard set of multidimensional patient-centered health outcomes for tracking, comparing, and improving localized prostate cancer (PCa) treatment value.

Design, setting, and participants: We convened an international working group of patients, registry experts, urologists, and radiation oncologists to review existing data and practices.

Outcome measurements and statistical analysis: The group defined a recommended standard set representing who should be tracked, what should be measured and at what time points, and what data are necessary to make meaningful comparisons. Using a modified Delphi method over a series of teleconferences, the group reached consensus for the Standard Set.

Results and limitations: We recommend that the Standard Set apply to men with newly diagnosed localized PCa treated with active surveillance, surgery, radiation, or other methods. The Standard Set includes acute toxicities occurring within 6 mo of treatment as well as patient-reported outcomes tracked regularly out to 10 yr. Patient-reported domains of urinary incontinence and irritation, bowel symptoms, sexual symptoms, and hormonal symptoms are included, and the recommended measurement tool is the Expanded Prostate Cancer Index Composite Short Form. Disease control outcomes include overall, cause-specific, metastasis-free, and biochemical relapse-free survival. Baseline clinical, pathologic, and comorbidity information is included to improve the interpretability of comparisons.

Conclusions: We have defined a simple, easily implemented set of outcomes that we believe should be measured in all men with localized PCa as a crucial first step in improving the value of care.

Patient summary: Measuring, reporting, and comparing identical outcomes across treatments and treatment centers will provide patients and providers with information to make informed treatment decisions. We defined a set of outcomes that we recommend being tracked for every man being treated for localized prostate cancer.

Keywords: Outcome measurement; Patient-reported; Prostate cancer; Value.

MeSH terms

  • Consensus
  • Delphi Technique
  • Disease Progression
  • Disease-Free Survival
  • Drug-Related Side Effects and Adverse Reactions / etiology
  • Health Status Indicators*
  • Health Status*
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Medical Oncology / standards*
  • Patient-Centered Care / standards*
  • Postoperative Complications / etiology
  • Practice Patterns, Physicians' / standards
  • Predictive Value of Tests
  • Process Assessment, Health Care / standards*
  • Prostatic Neoplasms / mortality
  • Prostatic Neoplasms / pathology
  • Prostatic Neoplasms / therapy*
  • Quality Improvement / standards
  • Quality Indicators, Health Care / standards*
  • Quality of Life
  • Radiation Injuries / etiology
  • Risk Assessment
  • Risk Factors
  • Time Factors
  • Treatment Outcome