During routine survey for amphibian nematodes from coalfield areas of West Bengal, India 7 male and 12 female nematodes were recovered from the rectum of one out of three Duttaphrynus melanostictus (Schneider, 1899) examined for helminth infection from Kulti, Burdwan. On examination the recovered nematodes were found to belong to a new species of the genus Aplectana (Nematoda: Cosmocercidae) and the name Aplectana duttaphryni sp. nov. is proposed for them. This species is most similar to those species which possess gubernaculum but differs from all by distribution pattern of caudal papillae. Aplectana duttaphryni sp. nov. represents 49(th) species assigned to the genus, but only the 4(th) species reported from Oriental realm and second from India.