Phase I trial of maintenance sorafenib after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation for fms-like tyrosine kinase 3 internal tandem duplication acute myeloid leukemia

Biol Blood Marrow Transplant. 2014 Dec;20(12):2042-8. doi: 10.1016/j.bbmt.2014.09.007. Epub 2014 Sep 17.


The fms-like tyrosine kinase 3 internal tandem duplication (FLT3-ITD) mutation is associated with a high relapse rate for patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) even after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). Sorafenib is a tyrosine kinase inhibitor, which inhibits the FLT3 tyrosine kinase and has shown encouraging activity in FLT3-ITD AML. We conducted a phase I trial of maintenance sorafenib after HSCT in patients with FLT3-ITD AML (ClinicalTrials.govNCT01398501). Patients received a variety of conditioning regimens and graft sources. A dose escalation 3 + 3 cohort design was used to define the maximum tolerated dose (MTD), with an additional 10 patients treated at the MTD. Sorafenib was initiated between days 45 and 120 after HSCT and continued for 12 28-day cycles. Twenty-two patients were enrolled (status at HSCT: first complete remission [CR1], n = 16; second complete remission [CR2], n = 3; refractory, n = 3). The MTD was established at 400 mg twice daily with 1 dose-limiting toxicity (DLT) observed (pericardial effusion). Two patients died of transplantation-related causes, both unrelated to sorafenib. Two patients stopped sorafenib after relapse and 5 stopped because of attributable toxicities after the DLT period. Median follow-up for surviving patients is 16.7 months after HSCT (range, 8.1 to 35.0). There was 1 case of grade II acute graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) after starting sorafenib and the 12-month cumulative incidence of chronic GVHD was 38% (90% confidence interval [CI], 21% to 56%). For all patients, 1-year progression-free survival (PFS) was 85% (90% CI, 66% to 94%) and 1-year overall survival (OS) was 95% (90% CI, 79% to 99%) after HSCT. For patients in CR1/CR2 before HSCT (n = 19), 1-year PFS was 95% (90% CI, 76% to 99%) and 1-year OS was 100%, with only 1 patient who relapsed. Sorafenib is safe after HSCT for FLT3-ITD AML and merits further investigation for the prevention of relapse.

Keywords: Acute myeloid leukemia; Allogeneic stem cell transplantation; Fms-like tyrosine kinase 3 internal tandem duplication (FLT3-ITD); Maintenance; Sorafenib.

Publication types

  • Clinical Trial, Phase I
  • Multicenter Study
  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Aged
  • Allografts
  • Disease-Free Survival
  • Female
  • Graft vs Host Disease / enzymology
  • Graft vs Host Disease / etiology
  • Graft vs Host Disease / genetics
  • Graft vs Host Disease / mortality
  • Graft vs Host Disease / therapy
  • Humans
  • Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute* / enzymology
  • Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute* / genetics
  • Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute* / mortality
  • Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute* / therapy
  • Maintenance Chemotherapy*
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Mutagenesis, Insertional*
  • Niacinamide / administration & dosage
  • Niacinamide / analogs & derivatives*
  • Phenylurea Compounds / administration & dosage*
  • Protein Kinase Inhibitors / administration & dosage*
  • Remission Induction
  • Sorafenib
  • Survival Rate
  • fms-Like Tyrosine Kinase 3* / antagonists & inhibitors
  • fms-Like Tyrosine Kinase 3* / genetics


  • Phenylurea Compounds
  • Protein Kinase Inhibitors
  • Niacinamide
  • Sorafenib
  • FLT3 protein, human
  • fms-Like Tyrosine Kinase 3

Associated data