Changes in cytosolic free Ca(2+) concentration ([Ca(2+)]c) play a crucial role in the control of insulin secretion from the electrically excitable pancreatic β-cell. Secretion is controlled by the finely tuned balance between Ca(2+) influx (mainly through voltage-dependent Ca(2+) channels, but also through voltage-independent Ca(2+) channels like store-operated channels) and efflux pathways. Changes in [Ca(2+)]c directly affect [Ca(2+)] in various organelles including the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), mitochondria, the Golgi apparatus, secretory granules and lysosomes, as imaged using recombinant targeted probes. Because most of these organelles have specific Ca(2+) influx and efflux pathways, they mutually influence free [Ca(2+)] in the others. In this article, we review the mechanisms of control of [Ca(2+)] in various compartments and particularly the cytosol, the endoplasmic reticulum ([Ca(2+)]ER), acidic stores and mitochondrial matrix ([Ca(2+)]mito), focusing chiefly on the most important physiological stimulus of β-cells, glucose. We also briefly review some alterations of β-cell Ca(2+) homeostasis in Type 2 diabetes.
Keywords: Calcium signaling; Diabetes; β-Cells.
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