The aims of this study are to compare plasma levels of IL17A, A/F, and F biomarkers in RA patients versus controls, and to determine responsiveness to methotrexate (MTX), anti-TNFs, and abatacept. We selected plasma samples from RA cohorts consisting of a cross-sectional RA cohort (N = 78) not receiving DMARDs at the time of sampling, as well as from longitudinal drug start cohorts (N = 71 patients) with pre/post samples including anti-TNF, abatacept, and MTX-treated patients. We assayed IL-17A, IL-17F, and IL17-A/F using a highly sensitive immunoassay system. Plasma levels of IL-17A, IL-17A/F, and IL-17F were all significantly increased in RA versus controls. The difference was largest in IL-17F, with median IL-17F levels in RA patients being approximately 18-fold higher than controls (81 pg/mL in RA vs. 4.4 pg/mL in controls, p < 0.001). Among the forms of IL-17, only IL-17F was decreased after therapy in the MTX cohort (p = 0.006), abatacept cohort (p < 0.001), and anti-TNF cohorts (p = 0.02), whereas IL-17A and IL-17A/F were not significantly decreased for any of the three drug cohorts. Synovial fluid analysis demonstrated higher IL-17F levels in RA (p = 0.016) than healthy controls. These results suggest a specific role for IL-17F in human RA pathogenesis and as a therapeutic target.