Background: Early detection of type 2 diabetes has the potential to prevent complications, but the prevalence of opportunistic screening is unknown.
Purpose: To describe the prevalence of diabetes screening by demographic and diabetes-related factors and to determine predictors of screening among a representative U.S. population without self-reported diabetes.
Methods: Cross-sectional data were obtained from the 2005-2010 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (n=15,125) and 2006 National Health Interview Survey (n=21,519). Participants were aged ≥20 years and self-reported having a diabetes screening test in the past 3 years. Diabetes screening prevalence was analyzed according to risk factors recommended by the American Diabetes Association. Logistic regression was used to determine significant predictors of diabetes screening. Analysis was conducted in 2012-2013.
Results: The prevalence of having a blood test for diabetes in the past 3 years was 42.1% in 2005-2006, 41.6% in 2007-2008, and 46.8% in 2009-2010. This prevalence increased with age and was higher for women, non-Hispanic whites, and those with more education and income (p<0.001 for all). BMI ≥25, age ≥45 years, having a relative with diabetes, hypertension, glycosylated hemoglobin ≥5.7%, and cardiovascular disease history were significant predictors of screening. For each additional risk factor, the likelihood of screening increased by 51%.
Conclusions: Nearly half of the adult population reported having a diabetes screening test. However, testing was less prevalent in minorities and those with lower socioeconomic status. Public health efforts to address these deficiencies in screening are needed.
Copyright © 2014 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. All rights reserved.