Protection of Clitoria ternatea flower petal extract against free radical-induced hemolysis and oxidative damage in canine erythrocytes

Res Vet Sci. 2014 Oct;97(2):357-63. doi: 10.1016/j.rvsc.2014.08.010. Epub 2014 Sep 3.


The present study assessed the antioxidant activity and protective ability of Clitoria ternatea flower petal extract (CTE) against in vitro 2,2'-azobis-2-methyl-propanimidamide dihydrochloride (AAPH)-induced hemolysis and oxidative damage of canine erythrocytes. From the phytochemical analysis, CTE contained phenolic compounds, flavonoids, and anthocyanins. In addition, CTE showed antioxidant activity as measured by oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) method and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging assay. CTE (400 µg/ml) remarkably protected erythrocytes against AAPH-induced hemolysis at 4 h of incubation. Moreover, CTE (400 µg/ml) reduced membrane lipid peroxidation and protein carbonyl group formation and prevented the reduction of glutathione concentration in AAPH-induced oxidation of erythrocytes. The AAPH-induced morphological alteration of erythrocytes from a smooth discoid to an echinocytic form was effectively protected by CTE. The present results contribute important insights that CTE may have the potential to act as a natural antioxidant to prevent free radical-induced hemolysis, protein oxidation and lipid peroxidation in erythrocytes.

Keywords: Anthocyanin; Antioxidant; Clitoria ternatea flower petal; Erythrocytes; Free radical; Hemolysis; Oxidative damage.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Antioxidants / pharmacology
  • Biphenyl Compounds / metabolism
  • Clitoria*
  • Dogs*
  • Erythrocytes / drug effects*
  • Erythrocytes / metabolism*
  • Flowers
  • Free Radicals / metabolism*
  • Glutathione / metabolism
  • Hemolysis / drug effects*
  • In Vitro Techniques
  • Lipid Peroxidation / drug effects
  • Male
  • Oxidative Stress / drug effects
  • Picrates / metabolism
  • Plant Extracts / pharmacology*
  • Protein Carbonylation / drug effects
  • Reactive Oxygen Species / metabolism


  • Antioxidants
  • Biphenyl Compounds
  • Free Radicals
  • Picrates
  • Plant Extracts
  • Reactive Oxygen Species
  • 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl
  • Glutathione