Long-term health-related quality of life after primary treatment for localized prostate cancer: results from the CaPSURE registry

Eur Urol. 2015 Oct;68(4):600-8. doi: 10.1016/j.eururo.2014.08.074. Epub 2014 Sep 18.


Background: Few studies have reported on late declines and long-term health-related quality of life (HRQOL) after prostate cancer (PCa) treatment.

Objective: We assessed long-term HRQOL following various treatments for localized PCa.

Design, setting, and participants: This cohort study of HRQOL up to 10 yr after treatment used a prospectively accrued, nationwide PCa registry that collects longitudinal patient-reported HRQOL.

Intervention: Various primary treatments for localized PCa.

Outcome measurements and statistical analysis: The Medical Outcomes Studies 36-item Short Form and the University of California, Los Angeles, Prostate Cancer Index characterized physical function, mental health, and sexual, urinary, and bowel function and bother. Repeated measures mixed-model analysis assessed change in HRQOL by treatment over time, and logistic regression was used to measure the likelihood of a clinically significant decline in HRQOL.

Results and limitations: Among 3294 men, 1139 (34%) underwent nerve-sparing radical prostatectomy (NSRP), 860 (26%) underwent non-NSRP, 684 (21%) underwent brachytherapy, 386 (12%) underwent external beam radiotherapy, 161 (5%) underwent primary androgen deprivation therapy, and 64 (2%) pursued watchful waiting/active surveillance. Median follow-up was 74 mo (interquartile range: 50-102). Most treatments resulted in early declines in HRQOL, with some recovery over the next 1-2 yr and a plateau in scores thereafter. Surgery had the largest impact on sexual function and bother and on urinary function, radiation had the strongest effect on bowel function, and androgen deprivation therapy had the strongest effect on physical function. The main limitation was attrition among the cohort.

Conclusions: Although most men experience initial declines in HRQOL in the first 2 yr after treatment, there is little change from 3 to 10 yr and most differences between treatments attenuated over time.

Patient summary: Various treatments for prostate cancer result in a distinct constellation of adverse effects on health-related quality of life, which may have a long-term impact. These findings are helpful regarding shared decision making over choice of primary treatment.

Keywords: HRQOL; Prostate cancer; Treatment.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.

MeSH terms

  • Aged
  • Aged, 80 and over
  • Androgen Antagonists / adverse effects
  • Androgen Antagonists / therapeutic use*
  • Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal / adverse effects
  • Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal / therapeutic use*
  • Brachytherapy* / adverse effects
  • Brachytherapy* / psychology
  • Chi-Square Distribution
  • Humans
  • Logistic Models
  • Longitudinal Studies
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Prospective Studies
  • Prostatectomy* / adverse effects
  • Prostatectomy* / psychology
  • Prostatic Neoplasms / pathology
  • Prostatic Neoplasms / psychology
  • Prostatic Neoplasms / therapy*
  • Quality of Life*
  • Registries
  • Risk Factors
  • Surveys and Questionnaires
  • Survivors / psychology*
  • Time Factors
  • Treatment Outcome
  • United States
  • Watchful Waiting*


  • Androgen Antagonists
  • Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal