Novel study on N-nitrosamines as risk factors of cardiovascular diseases

Biomed Res Int. 2014;2014:817019. doi: 10.1155/2014/817019. Epub 2014 Aug 27.


Millions of people are exposed daily to N-nitrosamines from different environmental sources. The present study aims at investigating the role of N-nitrosamines in the alteration of homocysteine, lipid profile, oxidative stress, paraoxonase activity, antioxidant enzymes, and free radicals which are important risk factors for CVD. In addition, biomarkers of cardiovascular diseases such as creatine kinase MB activity (CK-MB) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) as well as protein expression of both glutathione peroxidase and glutathione S-transferase π isozyme were assayed after treatment of rats with 0.2 mg/kg body weight of N-nitrosodibutylamine (NDBA), N-nitrosoethylbutylamine (NEBA), N-nitrosobutylpropylamine (NBPA), N-nitrosodiethylamine (NDEA), N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA), and N-nitrosodiphenylamine (NDPA) as a daily dose for two weeks. LDL levels, paraoxonase activity, reduced glutathione levels, and glutathione reductase activities were increased, whereas HDL levels decreased after treatment of rats with most of N-nitrosamines compared to control group. Moreover, levels of free radicals and catalase activity increased, whereas protein expression of both glutathione peroxidase and glutathione S-transferase decreased after treatment of rats with some N-nitrosamines. The data showed that most N-nitrosamines increased CK-MB and LDH activities. It is concluded that N-nitrosamines increased levels of free radicals, and decreased the activity of antioxidant enzymes which may consequently increase the incidence of CVDs.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Analysis of Variance
  • Animals
  • Biomarkers / blood*
  • Cardiovascular Diseases / metabolism*
  • Cholesterol / blood
  • Glutathione Peroxidase / analysis
  • Glutathione Peroxidase / metabolism
  • Glutathione Transferase / analysis
  • Glutathione Transferase / metabolism
  • Male
  • Nitrosamines / administration & dosage
  • Nitrosamines / pharmacology*
  • Oxidative Stress / drug effects*
  • Rats
  • Rats, Sprague-Dawley
  • Risk Factors


  • Biomarkers
  • Nitrosamines
  • Cholesterol
  • Glutathione Peroxidase
  • Glutathione Transferase