Chronic respiratory diseases and risk factors in 12 regions of the Russian Federation

Int J Chron Obstruct Pulmon Dis. 2014 Sep 12;9:963-74. doi: 10.2147/COPD.S67283. eCollection 2014.


Background: Estimation suggests that at least 4 million people die, annually, as a result of chronic respiratory disease (CRD). The Global Alliance against Chronic Respiratory Diseases (GARD) was formed following a mandate from the World Health Assembly to address this serious and growing health problem.

Objectives: To investigate the prevalence of CRD in Russian symptomatic patients and to evaluate the frequency of major risk factors for CRD in Russia.

Methods: A cross-sectional, population-based epidemiological study using the GARD questionnaire on adults from 12 regions of the Russian Federation. Common respiratory symptoms and risk factors were recorded. Spirometry was performed in respondents with suspected CRD. Allergic rhinitis (AR) and chronic bronchitis (CB) were defined by the presence of related symptoms according to the Allergic Rhinitis and its Impact on Asthma and the Global Initiative for Obstructive Lung Disease guidelines; asthma was defined based on disease symptoms; chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) was defined as a post-bronchodilator forced expiratory volume per 1 second/forced vital capacity ratio <0.7 in symptomatic patients, following the Global Initiative for Obstructive Lung Disease guidelines.

Results: The number of questionnaires completed was 7,164 (mean age 43.4 years; 57.2% female). The prevalence of asthma symptoms was 25.7%, AR 18.2%, and CB 8.6%. Based on patient self-reported diagnosis, 6.9% had asthma, 6.5% AR, and 22.2% CB. The prevalence of COPD based on spirometry in patients with respiratory symptoms was estimated as 21.8%.

Conclusion: The prevalence of respiratory diseases and risk factors was high in Russia when compared to available data. For bronchial asthma and AR, the prevalence for related symptoms was higher than self-reported previous diagnosis.

Keywords: GARD; Russia; chronic respiratory diseases; prevalence.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Aged
  • Aged, 80 and over
  • Bronchitis, Chronic / diagnosis
  • Bronchitis, Chronic / epidemiology*
  • Bronchitis, Chronic / physiopathology
  • Cross-Sectional Studies
  • Female
  • Forced Expiratory Volume
  • Health Surveys
  • Humans
  • Lung / physiopathology
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Prevalence
  • Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive / diagnosis
  • Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive / epidemiology*
  • Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive / physiopathology
  • Rhinitis, Allergic / diagnosis
  • Rhinitis, Allergic / epidemiology*
  • Rhinitis, Allergic / physiopathology
  • Risk Factors
  • Russia / epidemiology
  • Spirometry
  • Surveys and Questionnaires
  • Vital Capacity
  • Young Adult