Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) blasts express high levels of interlekin-3 (IL-3) receptor-α (CD123). CSL360 is a recombinant, chimeric immunoglobulin G1 (IgG1), anti-CD123 monoclonal antibody (MoAb) that neutralizes IL-3 and demonstrates anti-leukemic activity in vitro. This phase 1 study assessed safety, pharmacokinetics and bioactivity of weekly intravenous CSL360 for 12 weeks in 40 patients with advanced AML across five dose levels (0.1-10.0 mg/kg). Other than mild infusion reactions, CSL360 was well tolerated. The maximal tolerated dose was not reached. The half-life was 4.9 days, and the area under the curve (AUC) and maximum concentration (Cmax) increased proportionally with dose. Doses ≥ 3.0 mg/kg resulted in complete saturation and down-regulation of CD123 and abolition of ex vivo proliferative responsiveness to IL-3, indicating adequate blockade of IL-3 signaling. Two patients responded, with one remaining in complete remission after 17 doses. CSL360 bound CD123 specifically, but did not induce anti-leukemic activity in most patients. While safe, MoAb blockade of CD123 function is insufficient as a therapeutic strategy.
Keywords: Acute myeloid leukemia (AML); immunotherapy; interleukin-3 (IL-3) receptor-α (CD123); leukemic stem cell (LSC).