The multifaceted nature of NLRP12

J Leukoc Biol. 2014 Dec;96(6):991-1000. doi: 10.1189/jlb.3RU0514-265RR. Epub 2014 Sep 23.


NLRs are a class of cytoplasmic PRRs with various functions, ranging from pathogen/damage sensing to the modulation of inflammatory signaling and transcriptional control of MHC and related genes. In addition, some NLRs have been implicated in preimplantation and prenatal development. NLRP12 (also known as RNO, PYPAF7, and Monarch-1), a member of the family containing an N-terminal PYD, a NBD, and a C-terminal LRR region, is one of the first described NLR proteins whose role remains controversial. The interest toward NLRP12 has been boosted by its recent involvement in colon cancer, as well as in the protection against some severe infections, such as that induced by Yersinia pestis, the causative agent of plague. As NLRP12 is mainly expressed by the immune cells, and its expression is down-regulated in response to pathogen products and inflammatory cytokines, it has been predicted to play a role as a negative regulator of the inflammatory response. Herein, we present an overview of the NLR family and summarize recent insights on NLRP12 addressing its contribution to inflammatory signaling, host defense, and carcinogenesis.

Keywords: NF-κB; Nod-like receptors; cancer; infection; inflammasome.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Bacterial Infections / immunology
  • Cell Movement / physiology
  • Colitis / immunology
  • Gene Expression Regulation / immunology
  • Humans
  • Immunity, Innate
  • Inflammasomes
  • Inflammation / immunology
  • Intracellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins / deficiency
  • Intracellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins / genetics
  • Intracellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins / immunology
  • Intracellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins / physiology*
  • MAP Kinase Signaling System
  • Major Histocompatibility Complex / genetics
  • Mice
  • Mice, Knockout
  • Multigene Family
  • Myeloid Cells / immunology
  • Myeloid Cells / metabolism
  • NF-kappa B / metabolism
  • Neoplasm Proteins / immunology
  • Neoplasms / immunology
  • Nuclear Proteins / physiology
  • Protein Structure, Tertiary
  • Proteins / immunology
  • Receptors, Pattern Recognition / classification
  • Receptors, Pattern Recognition / genetics
  • Receptors, Pattern Recognition / immunology
  • Receptors, Pattern Recognition / physiology*
  • Trans-Activators / physiology


  • Inflammasomes
  • Intracellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins
  • MHC class II transactivator protein
  • NF-kappa B
  • NLRC5 protein, human
  • NLRP12 protein, human
  • NLRP12 protein, mouse
  • Neoplasm Proteins
  • Nuclear Proteins
  • Proteins
  • Receptors, Pattern Recognition
  • Trans-Activators