Background: Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors are highly effective at improving prognosis in a variety of disease states such as hypertension, cardiovascular disease, systolic heart failure, and acute coronary syndrome. Although these medications have been used in clinical practice for decades, not all ACE inhibitors are equal, as agents within this class vary in lipophilicity, tissue-ACE binding, antioxidant properties, antiinflammatory properties, bradykinin site selectivity, and duration of action. The objective of this systematic review and metaanalysis was to evaluate the effects of perindopril vs enalapril on left ventricular function in patients with systolic heart failure.
Methods: We conducted a systematic review and metaanalysis of trials comparing perindopril and enalapril in systolic heart failure. Relevant studies were identified through searches of MEDLINE, EMBASE, Web of Science, and Google Scholar.
Results: Three trials comparing enalapril with perindopril in 116 patients with systolic heart failure were identified. Compared to enalapril, perindopril significantly improved cardiac sympathetic nerve activity: the pooled mean net change in heart to mediastinum ratio was 0.12 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.08, 0.16) and the pooled mean net change in washout rate was -3.51% (95% CI: -4.17, -2.85). Other variables also showed improvement. The pooled mean net change in New York Heart Association functional class was -0.44 (95% CI: -0.86, -0.03) and the change in brain natriuretic peptide was -64.1 [95% CI: -80.8, -47.4]. The change in left ventricular ejection fraction was not significantly greater with perindopril than enalapril: 1.15% (95% CI: -2.74, 5.04). However, in the 2 trials that switched patients from enalapril to perindopril, left ventricular ejection fraction at 6 months was significantly greater in the perindopril group: 2.41% (95% CI: 1.26, 3.55; P<0.0001).
Conclusion: In patients with systolic heart failure, perindopril significantly improves cardiac sympathetic nerve activity, brain natriuretic peptide, and New York Heart Association functional class compared to enalapril. Additionally, when patients were switched from enalapril to perindopril, left ventricular ejection fraction at 6 months was significantly greater.
Keywords: Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors; cardiac output; enalapril; heart failure–systolic; perindopril; sympathetic nervous system.