Platelet-rich plasma and adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells for regenerative medicine-associated treatments in bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus)

PLoS One. 2014 Sep 24;9(9):e108439. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0108439. eCollection 2014.

Abstract

Dolphins exhibit an extraordinary capacity to heal deep soft tissue injuries. Nevertheless, accelerated wound healing in wild or captive dolphins would minimize infection and other side effects associated with open wounds in marine animals. Here, we propose the use of a biological-based therapy for wound healing in dolphins by the application of platelet-rich plasma (PRP). Blood samples were collected from 9 different dolphins and a specific and simple protocol which concentrates platelets greater than two times that of whole blood was developed. As opposed to a commonly employed human protocol for PRP preparation, a single centrifugation for 3 minutes at 900 rpm resulted in the best condition for the concentration of dolphin platelets. By FACS analysis, dolphin platelets showed reactivity to platelet cell-surface marker CD41. Analysis by electron microscopy revealed that dolphin platelets were larger in size than human platelets. These findings may explain the need to reduce the duration and speed of centrifugation of whole blood from dolphins to obtain a 2-fold increase and maintain proper morphology of the platelets. For the first time, levels of several growth factors from activated dolphin platelets were quantified. Compared to humans, concentrations of PDGF-BB were not different, while TGFβ and VEGF-A were significantly lower in dolphins. Additionally, adipose tissue was obtained from cadaveric dolphins found along the Spanish Mediterranean coast, and adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells (ASCs) were successfully isolated, amplified, and characterized. When dolphin ASCs were treated with 2.5 or 5% dolphin PRP they exhibited significant increased proliferation and improved phagocytotic activity, indicating that in culture, PRP may improve the regenerative capacity of ASCs. Taken together, we show an effective and well-defined protocol for efficient PRP isolation. This protocol alone or in combination with ASCs, may constitute the basis of a biological treatment for wound-healing and tissue regeneration in dolphins.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Bottle-Nosed Dolphin / blood*
  • Cell Differentiation
  • Cell Proliferation
  • Cells, Cultured
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Mesenchymal Stem Cells / physiology*
  • Platelet-Rich Plasma / immunology
  • Platelet-Rich Plasma / physiology*
  • Regenerative Medicine
  • Transforming Growth Factor beta / metabolism*
  • Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A / metabolism*
  • Wound Healing

Substances

  • Transforming Growth Factor beta
  • Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A

Grants and funding

This study was supported by the Spanish Ion Channel Initiative (CSD2008-00005): VMM, and the Instituto de Salud Carlos III (PI10/01683 and PI13/00319): VMM. The funders had no role in study design, data collection and analysis, decision to publish, or preparation of the manuscript.