Background: Acute uncomplicated cystitis in women is one of the most frequently diagnosed bacterial infections. A clinically symptomatic urinary tract infection must be differentiated from asymptomatic bacteriuria, which is not considered an infection but more a colonization which as a rule should not be treated. Acute cystitis can also be caused by a low number of uropathogenic bacteria, especially Escherichia coli, which is often overlooked during routine bacteriological diagnostics.
Antibiotic therapy: According to the guidelines the old oral antibiotics (e.g. fosfomycin tromethamine, nitrofurantoin and pivmecillinam) should be prescribed for antimicrobial therapy which are still effective against Escherichia coli in over 90% of cases.
Alternative therapy: With new therapeutic concepts the elimination of bacteria is no longer the main aim but treatment of the inflammatory (over) reaction of the host. To establish the significance of these therapeutic options as compared to the standard antibiotic therapy, the results of the ongoing and planned phase 3 studies need to be awaited. Thus, reliable clinical measurement parameters for diagnostics and outcome are needed. The acute cystitis symptom score (ACSS) has now also been developed and validated in the German language. Because of its high reliability, validity and predictive value it can be used not only in daily practice but also for clinical studies for the diagnosis of acute uncomplicated cystitis in women.