Self-employed persons in Sweden - mortality differentials by industrial sector and enterprise legal form: a five-year follow-up study

Am J Ind Med. 2015 Jan;58(1):21-32. doi: 10.1002/ajim.22387. Epub 2014 Sep 24.


Objectives: This study investigated mortality differentials between self-employed persons in Sweden, considering industrial sector, enterprise characteristics and socio-demographic factors.

Methods: Data on 321,274 self-employed persons were obtained from population registers in Sweden. Cox proportional hazards models were used to compare all-cause and cause-specific mortality rate ratios by industrial sector and enterprise legal form, adjusted for confounders.

Results: All-cause mortality was 10-32% higher in self-employed persons in Manufacturing and Mining, Trade and Communication, and Not Specified and Other sectors than in Agriculture, Forestry, and Fishing. Mortality from cardiovascular disease was 23% higher in Trade and Communication, and from neoplasms 17-51% higher in Manufacturing and Mining, Not Specified, and Other. Mortality from suicide was 45-60% lower in Personal and Cultural Services, and in Not Specified. Mortality was 8-16% higher in sole proprietorship than limited partnership.

Conclusions: Further research of working conditions is warranted, considering industry and enterprise legal form.

Keywords: Cox proportional hazards model; cardiovascular disease; cohort study; entrepreneur; epidemiology; gender; health; limited partnership; mortality; neoplasm; sole proprietorship; suicide; working conditions.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Cardiovascular Diseases / mortality*
  • Chronic Disease / mortality
  • Employment / psychology
  • Employment / statistics & numerical data*
  • Female
  • Follow-Up Studies
  • Humans
  • Industry / classification
  • Industry / statistics & numerical data*
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Mortality
  • Neoplasms / mortality*
  • Occupations / classification
  • Occupations / statistics & numerical data*
  • Proportional Hazards Models
  • Registries
  • Risk Factors
  • Sex Distribution
  • Socioeconomic Factors
  • Suicide / statistics & numerical data*
  • Sweden / epidemiology