Effect of audiovisual distraction with 3D video glasses on dental anxiety of children experiencing administration of local analgesia: a randomised clinical trial

Eur Arch Paediatr Dent. 2015 Feb;16(1):43-50. doi: 10.1007/s40368-014-0145-9. Epub 2014 Sep 26.


Aim: To determine the effect of three-dimensional (3D) audiovisual (AV) distraction in reducing dental anxiety of children.

Study design: A randomised clinical trial with a parallel design carried out on 90 children (49 boys and 41 girls) aged between 7 and 10 years (mean age of 8.4 years) to ascertain the comparative efficacy of audio (music) and AV (3D video glasses) distraction in reducing the dental anxiety of children during local analgesia (LA) administration.

Methods: Ninety children were randomly divided into three groups; control (basic behaviour guidance techniques without distraction), audio (basic techniques plus music) and AV (basic techniques plus 3D AV) distraction groups. All the children experienced LA administration with/without distraction and the anxiety was assessed using a combination of measures: MCDAS(f) (self-report), pulse rate (physiological), behaviour (using Wright's modification of Frankl behaviour rating scale and Houpt scale) and preferences of children.

Results: All 90 children completed the study. A highly significant reduction in the anxiety of audiovisual group as reported by the MCDAS(f) values (p<0.001) and Houpt scale (p=0.003); whereas pulse rate showed statistically significant increase (p<0.001) in all the three groups irrespective of distraction. The child preferences also affirmed the usage of 3D video glasses.

Conclusions: LA administration with music or 3D video glasses distraction had an added advantage in a majority of children with 3D video glasses being superior to music. High levels of satisfaction from children who experienced treatment with 3D video glasses were also observed.

Publication types

  • Comparative Study
  • Randomized Controlled Trial

MeSH terms

  • Anesthesia, Dental*
  • Anesthetics, Local / administration & dosage*
  • Attention*
  • Audiovisual Aids*
  • Behavior Control
  • Child
  • Child Behavior
  • Dental Anxiety / prevention & control*
  • Female
  • Heart Rate / physiology
  • Humans
  • Imaging, Three-Dimensional / methods*
  • Injections
  • Male
  • Music
  • Nerve Block / methods
  • Pain Measurement
  • Patient Preference
  • Patient Satisfaction
  • Pulse
  • Treatment Outcome
  • Video Recording


  • Anesthetics, Local