The CLN2 form of neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis, a type of Batten disease, is a lysosomal storage disorder caused by a deficiency of the enzyme tripeptidyl peptidase-1 (TPP1). Patients exhibit progressive neurodegeneration and loss of motor, cognitive, and visual functions, leading to death by the early teenage years. TPP1-null Dachshunds recapitulate human CLN2 disease. To characterize the safety and pharmacology of recombinant human (rh) TPP1 administration to the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) as a potential enzyme replacement therapy (ERT) for CLN2 disease, TPP1-null and wild-type (WT) Dachshunds were given repeated intracerebroventricular (ICV) infusions and the pharmacokinetic (PK) profile, central nervous system (CNS) distribution, and safety were evaluated. TPP1-null animals and WT controls received 4 or 16mg of rhTPP1 or artificial cerebrospinal fluid (aCSF) vehicle every other week. Elevated CSF TPP1 concentrations were observed for 2-3 days after the first ICV infusion and were approximately 1000-fold higher than plasma levels at the same time points. Anti-rhTPP1 antibodies were detected in CSF and plasma after repeat rhTPP1 administration, with titers generally higher in TPP1-null than in WT animals. Widespread brain distribution of rhTPP1 was observed after chronic administration. Expected histological changes were present due to the CNS delivery catheters and were similar in rhTPP1 and vehicle-treated animals, regardless of genotype. Neuropathological evaluation demonstrated the clearance of lysosomal storage, preservation of neuronal morphology, and reduction in brain inflammation with treatment. This study demonstrates the favorable safety and pharmacology profile of rhTPP1 ERT administered directly to the CNS and supports clinical evaluation in patients with CLN2 disease.
Keywords: Batten disease; CLN2; Intracerebroventricular; Intrathecal; Neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis; Tripeptidyl peptidase-1.
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