MMI-0100 inhibits cardiac fibrosis in myocardial infarction by direct actions on cardiomyocytes and fibroblasts via MK2 inhibition

J Mol Cell Cardiol. 2014 Dec;77:86-101. doi: 10.1016/j.yjmcc.2014.09.011. Epub 2014 Oct 1.


The cell-permeant peptide inhibitor of MAPKAP kinase 2 (MK2), MMI-0100, inhibits MK2 and downstream fibrosis and inflammation. Recent studies have demonstrated that MMI-0100 reduces intimal hyperplasia in a mouse vein graft model, pulmonary fibrosis in a murine bleomycin-induced model and development of adhesions in conjunction with abdominal surgery. MK2 is critical to the pathogenesis of ischemic heart injury as MK2(-/-) mice are resistant to ischemic remodeling. Therefore, we tested the hypothesis that inhibiting MK2 with MMI-0100 would protect the heart after acute myocardial infarction (AMI) in vivo. AMI was induced by placing a permanent LAD coronary ligation. When MMI-0100 peptide was given 30 min after permanent LAD coronary artery ligation, the resulting fibrosis was reduced/prevented ~50% at a 2 week time point, with a corresponding improvement in cardiac function and decrease in left ventricular dilation. In cultured cardiomyocytes and fibroblasts, MMI-0100 inhibited MK2 to reduce cardiomyocyte caspase 3/7 activity, while enhancing primary cardiac fibroblast caspase 3/7 activity, which may explain MMI-0100's salvage of cardiac function and anti-fibrotic effects in vivo. These findings suggest that therapeutic inhibition of MK2 after acute MI, using rationally-designed cell-permeant peptides, inhibits cardiac fibrosis and maintains cardiac function by mechanisms that involve inhibiting cardiomyocyte apoptosis, while enhancing primary cardiac fibroblast cell death.

Keywords: Apoptosis; Cardiac ischemia; Fibrosis; MAPKAP kinase 2; MK2; MMI-0100.

Publication types

  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Apoptosis
  • Cell Line
  • Fibroblasts / drug effects*
  • Fibroblasts / enzymology
  • Intracellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins / antagonists & inhibitors*
  • Intracellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins / metabolism
  • Mice, Inbred C57BL
  • Myocardial Infarction / drug therapy*
  • Myocardium / pathology
  • Myocytes, Cardiac / drug effects*
  • Myocytes, Cardiac / enzymology
  • Peptides / pharmacology*
  • Protein Kinase Inhibitors / pharmacology*
  • Protein-Serine-Threonine Kinases / antagonists & inhibitors*
  • Protein-Serine-Threonine Kinases / metabolism
  • Pulmonary Fibrosis / prevention & control


  • Intracellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins
  • MMI-0100
  • Peptides
  • Protein Kinase Inhibitors
  • MAP-kinase-activated kinase 2
  • Protein-Serine-Threonine Kinases