Effect of carbapenem consumption patterns on the molecular epidemiology and carbapenem resistance of Acinetobacter baumannii

J Med Microbiol. 2014 Dec;63(Pt 12):1654-1662. doi: 10.1099/jmm.0.082818-0. Epub 2014 Sep 26.


This study investigated the molecular epidemiology of Acinetobacter baumannii in the University of Debrecen in relation to antibiotic consumption. Overall and ward-specific antibiotic consumption was measured by the number of defined daily doses (DDD) per 100 bed-days between 2002 and 2012. Consumption was analysed against the number of A. baumannii positive patients per 100 bed-days, number of isolates per positive sample, and proportion of carbapenem resistant A. baumannii, using time-series analysis. Altogether 160 A. baumannii isolates from different wards were collected and analysed. Carbapenemase genes bla(OXA-23-like), bla(OXA-24-like), bla(OXA-48-like), bla(OXA-51-like), bla(OXA-58-like) and integrons were sought by PCR. Relatedness of isolates was assessed by PFGE. Prevalence and carbapenem resistance of A. baumannii were statistically associated with carbapenem consumption. Prevalence data followed carbapenem usage with three quarterly lags (r = 0.51-0.53, P<0.001), and meropenem and ertapenem, but not imipenem usage, affected prevalence. Colistin usage, in turn, lagged behind prevalence with one lag (r = 0.68-0.70, P<0.001). Six clusters were identified; the neurology ward with the lowest carbapenem consumption was associated with the carbapenem-susceptible cluster, as well as with the carbapenem-susceptible isolates in the cluster with variable susceptibility. Wards with high carbapenem usage almost exclusively harboured isolates from carbapenem-resistant clusters. All clusters were dominated by isolates of one or two wards, but most wards were represented in multiple clusters. Increases in prevalence and carbapenem resistance of A. baumannii were associated with usage of meropenem and ertapenem but not of imipenem, which led to the spread of multiple clones in the University.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Acinetobacter Infections / epidemiology*
  • Acinetobacter Infections / microbiology
  • Acinetobacter baumannii / classification
  • Acinetobacter baumannii / drug effects
  • Acinetobacter baumannii / enzymology
  • Acinetobacter baumannii / genetics*
  • Anti-Bacterial Agents / pharmacology
  • Anti-Bacterial Agents / therapeutic use*
  • Bacterial Proteins / genetics
  • Carbapenems / pharmacology
  • Carbapenems / therapeutic use*
  • Cluster Analysis
  • Drug Utilization*
  • Electrophoresis, Gel, Pulsed-Field
  • Hospitals, University
  • Humans
  • Hungary / epidemiology
  • Integrons
  • Molecular Epidemiology
  • Molecular Typing
  • Polymerase Chain Reaction
  • Prevalence
  • beta-Lactam Resistance*
  • beta-Lactamases / genetics


  • Anti-Bacterial Agents
  • Bacterial Proteins
  • Carbapenems
  • beta-Lactamases
  • carbapenemase