Validation of an Arabic version of the Oswestry index in Saudi Arabia

Ann Phys Rehabil Med. 2014 Dec;57(9-10):653-63. doi: 10.1016/ Epub 2014 Aug 4.


Objective: The aim of this study was to adapt and validate the Tunisian version of the Oswestry Disability Index (ODI) within a Saudi Arabian population.

Method: The translation of items 8 and 10 taken out of the Tunisian version was conducted according to Beaton's method. Adaptations were made after a pilot study on 100 patients. The validation study included 100 patients suffering from chronic low back pain aged 18 to 65 years old. Intra-observer reliability was assessed using the intra-class coefficient (ICC). Spearman rank correlation coefficient, the Kruskall-Wallis test and factor analysis were used to evaluate construct validity (convergent and divergent validity). Internal consistency was assessed by Cronbach's alpha coefficient.

Results: One hundred Saudi patients were included in the study. Intra-observer reliability was excellent (ICC: 0.99). The correlations of the index with the VAS pain scale (r=0.708), the Roland-Morris Low Back Pain Disability (r=0.656), and the Quebec Back Pain Disability Scale (r=0.792) suggest good construct validity. Factor analysis unveiled two main factors explaining a cumulative percentage variance of 63.5%. The first factor represents static activities and the second factor represents dynamic activities.

Conclusion: The Arabic version of the ODI adapted to the Saudi population has high metrological qualities. Further studies assessing its responsiveness to change should be conducted.

Keywords: Disability; Functional index; Incapacité; Index fonctionnel; Lombalgie; Low back pain; Oswestry; Traduction; Translation.

Publication types

  • Validation Study

MeSH terms

  • Adolescent
  • Adult
  • Chronic Pain / physiopathology*
  • Disability Evaluation*
  • Factor Analysis, Statistical
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Language
  • Low Back Pain / physiopathology*
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Observer Variation
  • Pain Measurement
  • Psychometrics
  • Reproducibility of Results
  • Saudi Arabia
  • Surveys and Questionnaires*
  • Translations
  • Young Adult