Müller glia (MG) in the zebrafish retina respond to retinal injury by generating multipotent progenitors for retinal repair. Here, we show that Insulin, Igf-1, and fibroblast growth factor (FGF) signaling components are necessary for retina regeneration. Interestingly, these factors synergize with each other and with heparin-binding EGF-like growth factor (HB-EGF) and cytokines to stimulate MG to generate multipotent progenitors in the uninjured retina. These factors act by stimulating a core set of signaling cascades (Mapk/Erk, phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase [PI3K], β-catenin, and pStat3) that are also shared with retinal injury and exhibit a remarkable amount of crosstalk. Our studies suggest that MG both produce and respond to factors that stimulate MG reprogramming and proliferation following retinal injury. The identification of a core set of regeneration-associated signaling pathways required for MG reprogramming not only furthers our understanding of retina regeneration in fish but also suggests targets for enhancing regeneration in mammals.
Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.