Cytoreductive surgery plus bicavitary chemohyperthermia as treatment of pseudomixoma peritonei with pleural extension. A case report and review of the literature

Ann Ital Chir. 2014 Jul-Aug;85(4):372-6.


Aim: Intrathoracic extension in patients with pseudomixoma peritonei is a rare event, but spread of the tumour beyond the abdomen in to pleuropulmonary cavity has been reported.

Materials and methods: We report a case of a 50-years-old woman with synchronous pleural manifestation of pseudomixoma peritonei by a mucinous ovarian cancer. During the abdominal cytoreductive surgery an extensive disease under the right hemidiaphragm was noted, requiring partial diaphragmatic resection. Once the pleural space was entered,mucinous neoplastic implants on the pleural surface was observed. The diaphragmatic defect was left open during the hyperthermic chemoperfusion to treat both the pleural and peritoneal surfaces. After a postoperative course uneventful she died after 6 months for a myocardial infarction, in presence of a left side pleural effusion with a positive cytology for high-grade malignant cells with a smear background contained wispy mucin.

Discussion: Despite the aggressive spread of the pseudomixoma peritonei within the peritoneal cavity, lymphatic and hematogenous metastasis are rare. However, extension of disease into pleuropolmonary cavity has been well described as pleural effusion or pleuropulmonary metastases. This is the first report in literature, to our knowledge, in which the thoracic extension is due to a mucinous ovarian cancer, and is the second case in which a simultaneous bicavitary hyperthermic chemoperfusion was done as a management option for thoracic extension of pseudomixoma peritonei.

Conclusion: Due to the rarity of the thoracic involvement by pseudomixoma peritonei, its correct treatment is still unclear. Simultaneous cytoreductive surgery associated to intraoperative intraperitoneal and intrathoracic chemohyperthermia can be a potential therapeutic option for these patients.

Publication types

  • Case Reports
  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use*
  • Carcinoma, Ovarian Epithelial
  • Combined Modality Therapy
  • Cytoreduction Surgical Procedures*
  • Diaphragm / surgery*
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Hyperthermia, Induced*
  • Middle Aged
  • Neoplasm Invasiveness
  • Neoplasms, Glandular and Epithelial / therapy*
  • Neoplasms, Multiple Primary / therapy*
  • Ovarian Neoplasms / therapy*
  • Peritoneal Neoplasms / pathology
  • Peritoneal Neoplasms / therapy*
  • Pleural Neoplasms / therapy*
  • Pseudomyxoma Peritonei / pathology
  • Pseudomyxoma Peritonei / therapy*


  • Antineoplastic Agents