Objectives: The aim of this study is to evaluate gender-related differences in clinical presentation and mortality in patients undergoing isolated surgical aortic valve replacement (SAVR).
Methods: We performed a retrospective analysis of all patients undergoing isolated SAVR from 2000 to 2011 in our center. Patient data were compared with regard to gender including baseline characteristics, 30-day, and late mortality. Kaplan-Meier survival curves were used to analyze long-term survival up to 10 years follow-up. Independent risk factors for 30-day and late mortality were identified using a Cox regression model.
Results: Two thousand one hundred ninety-seven patients were included, 1290 (58.7%) male patients and 907 (41.3%) female patients. Female patients were older (70 ± 11 vs. 64 ± 13 years, p < 0.001), presented with higher logistic EuroSCORE (7.5 ± 5.8 vs. 5.6 ± 6%, p = 0.006), and more common NYHA class III or IV (71 vs. 65%, p = 0.05). Male patients presented more often with LV dysfunction (7.5 vs. 2.8%, p < 0.001) and endocarditis (4.1 vs. 1.7%, p < 0.001) than female patients. Intraoperatively, female patients were more likely to have had a complete sternotomy (65 vs. 52%, p < 0.001) and SAVR with a bioprosthesis (87 vs. 78%, p < 0.001). Female patients exhibited a higher 30-day mortality (4.4 vs. 1.6%, p < 0.001) and late mortality (13 vs. 9.6%, p = 0.04) than male patients. After adjustment for baseline characteristics, only female gender was an independent predictor for 30-day mortality (HR 2.2, 95% CI 0.98 to 5.2, p = 0.05) and age as independent predictor for late mortality (HR 1.07, 95% CI 1.03 to 1.1, p < 0.001).
Conclusion: Female patients were older and sicker and may therefore exhibit higher 30-day and late mortality than male patients. Female gender per se was a predictor for 30-day but not for late mortality.
© 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.