A 12-year-old boy with refractory acute lymphoblastic leukemia received a haploidentical transplant from his mother. As prophylaxis for Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), cytomegalovirus (CMV) and adenovirus, he received ex vivo expanded virus-specific donor T cells 3.5 months after transplant. Four weeks later leukemic blasts bearing the E2A deletion, identified by fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH), appeared transiently in the blood followed by a FISH-negative hematological remission, which was sustained until a testicular relapse 3.5 months later. Clearance of the circulating leukemic cells coincided with a marked increase in circulating virus-specific T cells. The virus-specific cytotoxic T-cell (CTL) line showed strong polyfunctional reactivity with the patient's leukemic cells but not phytohemagglutinin (PHA) blasts, suggesting that virus-specific CTL lines may have clinically significant antileukemia activity.