The Hippo pathway was originally identified as the signaling that controls organ size in Drosophila, with the core architecture conserved in mammals. In the mammalian Hippo pathway, mammalian Ste20-like kinases (MST1/2) and large tumor suppressor kinases (LATS1/2) regulate transcriptional co-activators, Yes-associated protein (YAP1) and Transcriptional co-activator with a PDZ-binding motif (TAZ). The Hippo pathway was initially thought to be quite straightforward; however, the identification of additional components has revealed its inherent complexity. Regulation of YAP1 and TAZ is not always dependent on MST1/2 and LATS1/2. MST1/2 and LATS1/2 play various YAP1/TAZ-independent roles, while YAP1 and TAZ cross-talk with other signaling pathways. In this review we focus on YAP1 and TAZ and discuss their regulation, function, and the consequences of their dysregulation.