A glycogene mutation map for discovery of diseases of glycosylation

Glycobiology. 2015 Feb;25(2):211-24. doi: 10.1093/glycob/cwu104. Epub 2014 Sep 28.


Glycosylation of proteins and lipids involves over 200 known glycosyltransferases (GTs), and deleterious defects in many of the genes encoding these enzymes cause disorders collectively classified as congenital disorders of glycosylation (CDGs). Most known CDGs are caused by defects in glycogenes that affect glycosylation globally. Many GTs are members of homologous isoenzyme families and deficiencies in individual isoenzymes may not affect glycosylation globally. In line with this, there appears to be an underrepresentation of disease-causing glycogenes among these larger isoenzyme homologous families. However, genome-wide association studies have identified such isoenzyme genes as candidates for different diseases, but validation is not straightforward without biomarkers. Large-scale whole-exome sequencing (WES) provides access to mutations in, for example, GT genes in populations, which can be used to predict and/or analyze functional deleterious mutations. Here, we constructed a draft of a functional mutational map of glycogenes, GlyMAP, from WES of a rather homogenous population of 2000 Danes. We cataloged all missense mutations and used prediction algorithms, manual inspection and in case of carbohydrate-active enzymes family GT27 experimental analysis of mutations to map deleterious mutations. GlyMAP (http://glymap.glycomics.ku.dk) provides a first global view of the genetic stability of the glycogenome and should serve as a tool for discovery of novel CDGs.

Keywords: MAF; damaging mutations; glycogenes; nonsynonymous mutations; nsSNV.

Publication types

  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Chromosome Mapping
  • Congenital Disorders of Glycosylation / genetics*
  • Databases, Genetic
  • Genetic Association Studies
  • Genome, Human
  • Genomic Instability
  • Glycosylation
  • Glycosyltransferases / genetics*
  • Humans
  • Molecular Sequence Annotation
  • Mutation
  • Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide
  • Protein Processing, Post-Translational


  • Glycosyltransferases