Effect of Acanthopanax senticosus on the accumulation of cadmium and on the immune response of spleen cells

J Toxicol Environ Health A. 2014;77(21):1311-8. doi: 10.1080/15287394.2014.924453.


Exposure to cadmium (Cd) is known to alter immune responses. Acanthopanax senticosus (Rupr. et Maxim.) Harms (AS) extract, an antioxidant-containing complex of phenolic compounds, tetracyclic triterpenoids/steroids, and polysaccharides, is known to produce Cd mobilization and excretion in vivo. Building upon earlier findings, the aim of the study was to evaluate the effects of an AS extract on Cd accumulation and changes in the presence of splenic immune cells in hosts during a chronic metal exposure. Chronic Cd exposure of BALB/c mice was induced by providing them solutions containing different levels of CdCl2 (25 or 250 mg/L) in double-distilled water, with/without a concurrent presence of AS root extract (approximately 151 g material/L), for 8 wk. At the study end, Cd levels in spleen were measured. Levels of key splenic immune cells, including macrophages, T-lymphocytes, and B-lymphocytes, were determined by immunohistochemistry using, respectively, CD68, CD3, and CD20 antibodies. The results indicated that chronic consumption of AS extract in the presence of the high dose of CdCl2 led to a significant decrease in Cd levels in mouse spleen. The effects of AS on the lower CdCl2 dose were less apparent. In addition, the presence of AS and Cd increased the amount of macrophages and both B and T lymphocytes in mouse spleen relative to concentrations that were lowered as a result of chronic metal only intake.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • B-Lymphocytes / drug effects
  • B-Lymphocytes / metabolism
  • Cadmium Chloride / pharmacokinetics*
  • Cadmium Chloride / toxicity*
  • Dose-Response Relationship, Drug
  • Eleutherococcus / chemistry*
  • Immunohistochemistry
  • Male
  • Mice
  • Mice, Inbred BALB C
  • Plant Extracts / pharmacology*
  • Plant Roots / chemistry
  • Spleen / cytology
  • Spleen / drug effects*
  • Spleen / immunology*
  • T-Lymphocytes / drug effects
  • T-Lymphocytes / metabolism


  • Plant Extracts
  • Cadmium Chloride