Background: Xeroderma pigmentosum group G (XPG) plays a critical role in preventing cells from oxidative DNA damage. This study aimed to investigate XPG protein expression in different gastric tissues and in patients with diverse prognoses, thus providing insights into its role in the development, progression and prognosis of gastric cancer (GC).
Methods: A total of 176 GC, 131 adjacent non-tumour tissues, 53 atrophic gastritis (AG) and 49 superficial gastritis (SG) samples were included. Immunohistochemical staining was used to detect XPG protein expression.
Results: XPG expression was significantly higher in GC tissues compared with adjacent non-tumour tissues. In the progressive disease sequence SG→AG→GC, XPG expression was significantly higher in AG and GC compared with SG. Analysis of clinicopathological parameters and survival in GC patients demonstrated a significant association between XPG expression level and depth of tumour invasion, macroscopic type, Lauren's classification, smoking, Helicobacter pylori infection and family history. Cox multivariate survival analysis indicated that patients with positive XPG expression had significantly longer overall survival (P = 0.020, HR = 0.394, 95%CI 0.179-0.866), especially in aged younger than 60 years (P = 0.027, HR = 0.361, 95%CI 0.147-0.888) and male patients (P = 0.002, HR = 0.209, 95%CI 0.077-0.571).
Conclusions: This study demonstrated that XPG protein expression was related to the development, progression and prognosis of GC, and might thus serve as a potential biomarker for its diagnosis and prognosis.