Soluble ST2 in heart failure

Clin Chim Acta. 2015 Mar 30;443:57-70. doi: 10.1016/j.cca.2014.09.021. Epub 2014 Sep 28.


In addition to routine clinical laboratory tests (including natriuretic peptides and cardiac troponins), other biomarkers are gaining attention for their utility in heart failure (HF) management. Among them, soluble ST2 (sST2) a novel biomarker integrating inflammation, fibrosis, and cardiac stress has been included in the 2013 ACCF/AHA guideline for additive risk stratification of patients with acute and chronic HF. sST2 is an interleukin-1 (IL-1) receptor family member, is secreted into the circulation and functions as a "decoy" receptor for IL-33, inhibiting IL-33/ST2 signaling. Blood concentrations of sST2 are increased in various diseases such as inflammatory diseases and heart diseases and are considered a valuable prognostic marker in both conditions. sST2 lacks disease specificity and, therefore, is not a valuable marker for the diagnosis of HF. In acute and chronic HF, however, sST2 is strongly associated with measures of HF severity and poor outcome. Several studies in patients with HF indicate that serial measurement of sST2 has prognostic value and could have a potential role in future biomarker-directed therapy. In this review, the role of sST2 as a HF biomarker will be discussed, specifically addressing analytical considerations of measuring sST2 as well as the clinical applications of measurement of sST2 for the diagnosis, prognosis and monitoring of acute and chronic HF.

Keywords: Biomarker-guided therapy; Diagnosis; Dyspnea; Heart failure; Inflammation; Interleukin-33; Monitoring; Prognosis.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Biomarkers / blood
  • Heart Failure / blood*
  • Heart Failure / diagnosis
  • Humans
  • Interleukin-1 Receptor-Like 1 Protein
  • Prognosis
  • Receptors, Cell Surface / blood*
  • Solubility


  • Biomarkers
  • IL1RL1 protein, human
  • Interleukin-1 Receptor-Like 1 Protein
  • Receptors, Cell Surface