Inhibition of the bovine-heart mitochondrial F1-ATPase by cationic dyes and amphipathic peptides

Biochim Biophys Acta. 1989 Aug 3;975(3):377-83. doi: 10.1016/s0005-2728(89)80346-9.


The bovine heart mitochondrial F1-ATPase is inhibited by a number of amphiphilic cations. The order of effectiveness of non-peptidyl inhibitors examined as assessed by the concentration estimated to produce 50% inhibition (I0.5) of the enzyme at pH 8.0 is: dequalinium (8 microM), rhodamine 6G (10 microM), malachite green (14 microM), rosaniline (15 microM) greater than acridine orange (180 microM) greater than rhodamine 123 (270 microM) greater than rhodamine B (475 microM), coriphosphine (480 microM) greater than safranin O (1140 microM) greater than pyronin Y (1650 microM) greater than Nile blue A (greater than 2000 microM). The ATPase activity was also inhibited by the following cationic, amphiphilic peptides: the bee venom peptide, melittin; a synthetic peptide corresponding to the presence of yeast cytochrome oxidase subunit IV (WT), and amphiphilic, synthetic peptides which have been shown (Roise, D., Franziska, T., Horvath, S.J., Tomich, J.M., Richards, J.H., Allison, D.S. and Schatz, G. (1988) EMBO J. 7, 649-653) to function in mitochondrial import when attached to dihydrofolate reductase (delta 11.12, Syn-A2, and Syn-C). The order of effectiveness of the peptide inhibitors as assessed by I0.5 values is: Syn-A2 (40 nM), Syn-C (54 nM) greater than melittin (5 microM) greater than WT (16 microM) greater than delta 11,12 (29 microM). Rhodamines B and 123, dequalinium, melittin, and Syn-A2 showed noncompetitive inhibition, whereas each of the other inhibitors examined (rhodamine 6G, rosaniline, malachite green, coriphosphine, acridine orange, and-Syn-C) showed mixed inhibition. Replots of slopes and intercepts from Lineweaver-Burk plots obtained for dequalinium were hyperbolic indicating partial inhibition. With the exception of Syn-C, for which the slope replot was hyperbolic and the intercept replot was parabolic, steady-state kinetic analyses indicated that inhibition by the other inhibitors was complete. The inhibition constants obtained by steady-state kinetic analyses were in agreement with the I0.5 values estimated for each inhibitor examined. Rhodamine 6G, rosaniline, dequalinium, melittin, Syn-A2, and Syn-C were observed to protect F1 against inactivation by the aziridinium of quinacrine mustard in accord with their experimentally determined I0.5 values.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS)

Publication types

  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.
  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Cattle
  • Coloring Agents / pharmacology*
  • Dequalinium / pharmacology
  • Melitten / pharmacology
  • Mitochondria, Heart / drug effects
  • Mitochondria, Heart / enzymology*
  • Peptides / pharmacology*
  • Phospholipids / metabolism
  • Protein Conformation
  • Proton-Translocating ATPases / antagonists & inhibitors*
  • Quinacrine Mustard / pharmacology
  • Structure-Activity Relationship


  • Coloring Agents
  • Peptides
  • Phospholipids
  • Melitten
  • Quinacrine Mustard
  • Dequalinium
  • Proton-Translocating ATPases