Enhancement of exercise endurance capacity by fermented deer antler in BALB/c mice

Biosci Biotechnol Biochem. 2014;78(10):1716-22. doi: 10.1080/09168451.2014.930324. Epub 2014 Jun 26.


To investigate the activity of fermented deer antler on exercise endurance capacity, we evaluated endurance capacity in five-week-old male BALB/c mice by administering the fermented deer antler extract (FA) or the non-fermented deer antler extract (NFA) and then subjected the mice to exercise in the form of swimming. The mice administered 500 mg/kg/day of FA showed a significant increase in swimming time compared with mice administered placebo (16.55 min vs. 21.64 min, P<0.05). Serum lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), the marker of the liver and muscle damage, was significantly lower in FA groups. However, NFA groups did not show significantly different swimming time or serum LDH from that of the control group. Moreover, the FA-500 group had significantly higher hepatic superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity after forced swimming than the control and NFA groups (P<0.05). These findings suggest that fermentation may increase the exercise endurance capacity of the deer antler.

Keywords: deer antler; endurance capacity; fatigue; fermentation; forced swimming test.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Blood Glucose / metabolism
  • Body Weight / drug effects
  • Bone and Bones / metabolism*
  • Deer*
  • Fermentation*
  • Free Radical Scavengers / metabolism
  • Free Radical Scavengers / pharmacology
  • Lactic Acid / blood
  • Liver / drug effects
  • Liver / enzymology
  • Male
  • Mice
  • Mice, Inbred BALB C
  • Organ Size / drug effects
  • Physical Conditioning, Animal / physiology*
  • Physical Endurance / drug effects*


  • Blood Glucose
  • Free Radical Scavengers
  • Lactic Acid