Aims: We investigate associations between the pulse-wave-derived measures augmentation pressure (AP) and augmentation index, and diabetic complications in type 1 diabetes.
Methods: This cross-sectional study from 2009-2011 included 676 type 1 diabetes patients. SphygmoCor (Atcor Medical, Australia) measured AP and heart rate-adjusted augmentation index (AI75). Diabetic complications were micro- or macroalbuminuria [urinary albumin excretion rate (UAER) 30-299 or ≥300 mg/24-h], cardiovascular disease (CVD) (previous revascularization, myocardial infarction, peripheral arterial disease or stroke), autonomic dysfunction (heart rate variability <11 beats/min), or retinopathy (simple, proliferative or blindness). Adjustments included age, gender, diabetes duration, mean arterial pressure, heart rate, height, UAER, eGFR, HbA1c, total cholesterol, total daily insulin dose, antihypertensive medication, and smoking.
Results: AP and AI75 measurements were available in 636 (94.1 %) patients and were 9.9 ± 7.6 mmHg and 16.9 ± 12.0, respectively. After adjustment, AP and AI75 were independently associated with diabetes duration and albuminuria (p ≤ 0.001). Furthermore, higher AP and AI75 were associated with previous CVD [adjusted odds ratios (95 % confidence interval) (per 1 SD increase) 1.9 (1.3-2.7) and 1.5 (1.0-2.2) (p ≤ 0.039)], but not with autonomic dysfunction or retinopathy (p ≥ 0.12).
Conclusions: In type 1 diabetes, augmentation pressure and heart rate-adjusted augmentation index were associated with diabetes duration, albuminuria, and CVD, independently of conventional risk factors. ClinicalTrials.gov:NCT01171248.