A new C-type lectin (RVsnaclec) purified from venom of Daboia russelii russelii shows anticoagulant activity via inhibition of FXa and concentration-dependent differential response to platelets in a Ca²⁺-independent manner

Thromb Res. 2014 Nov;134(5):1150-6. doi: 10.1016/j.thromres.2014.09.009. Epub 2014 Sep 18.


This is the first report on the characterization of a snaclec (RVsnaclec) purified from Daboia russelii russelii venom. The RVsnaclec is a heterodimer of two subunits, α (15.1 kDa) and β (9 kDa). These subunits are covalently linked to form multimeric (αβ)₂ and (αβ)₄ structures. Peptide mass fingerprinting analysis of RVsnaclec via LC-MS/MS demonstrated its similarity to snaclecs purified from other viperid snake venoms. Two tryptic peptide sequences of RVsnaclec revealed the putative conserved domains of C-type lectin (CTL). RVsnaclec dose-dependently increased the Ca-clotting time and prothrombin time of platelet-poor plasma (PPP); however, it did not affect the partial thromboplastin time (APTT) or thrombin time of PPP. The in vitro and in vivo anticoagulant activity of RVsnaclec is correlated to its binding and subsequent uncompetitive inhibition of FXa (Ki = 0.52 μmole) in a Ca(2+)-independent manner; however, supplementation with 0.25 mM Ca(2+) enhanced the Xa binding potency of RVsnaclec. Monovalent or polyvalent antivenom failed to neutralize its anticoagulant potency, and RVsnaclec did not inhibit trypsin, chymotrypsin, thrombin or plasmin. RVsnaclec was devoid of hemolytic activity or cytotoxicity against several human cancer cell lines, demonstrated concentration-dependent aggregation and deaggregation of human platelets, and inhibited the ADP-induced aggregation of platelet. RVsnaclec (5.0 mg/kg body weight) was non-lethal to mice and showed no adverse pharmacological effects, suggesting that it has potential as a lead compound for future therapeutic applications in cardiovascular disorders.

Keywords: Anticoagulant; Antiplatelet; Factor Xa inhibition; Prothrombin time; Russell’s Viper; Snaclec.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Anticoagulants / administration & dosage
  • Anticoagulants / chemistry
  • Anticoagulants / pharmacology*
  • Anticoagulants / toxicity
  • Blood Coagulation / drug effects
  • Blood Platelets / cytology
  • Blood Platelets / drug effects
  • Blood Platelets / metabolism
  • Calcium / metabolism
  • Factor Xa / metabolism
  • Factor Xa Inhibitors / administration & dosage
  • Factor Xa Inhibitors / chemistry
  • Factor Xa Inhibitors / pharmacology
  • Factor Xa Inhibitors / toxicity
  • Goats
  • Humans
  • Lectins, C-Type / administration & dosage
  • Lectins, C-Type / chemistry*
  • Lectins, C-Type / isolation & purification
  • Mice
  • Platelet Aggregation / drug effects
  • Russell's Viper* / metabolism
  • Viper Venoms / administration & dosage
  • Viper Venoms / chemistry
  • Viper Venoms / pharmacology*
  • Viper Venoms / toxicity


  • Anticoagulants
  • Factor Xa Inhibitors
  • Lectins, C-Type
  • Viper Venoms
  • Factor Xa
  • Calcium