Skip to main page content
Access keys NCBI Homepage MyNCBI Homepage Main Content Main Navigation
Meta-Analysis
. 2014 Nov;46(11):1173-86.
doi: 10.1038/ng.3097. Epub 2014 Oct 5.

Defining the Role of Common Variation in the Genomic and Biological Architecture of Adult Human Height

Andrew R Wood  1 Tonu Esko  2 Jian Yang  3 Sailaja Vedantam  4 Tune H Pers  5 Stefan Gustafsson  6 Audrey Y Chu  7 Karol Estrada  8 Jian'an Luan  9 Zoltán Kutalik  10 Najaf Amin  11 Martin L Buchkovich  12 Damien C Croteau-Chonka  13 Felix R Day  9 Yanan Duan  14 Tove Fall  15 Rudolf Fehrmann  16 Teresa Ferreira  17 Anne U Jackson  18 Juha Karjalainen  16 Ken Sin Lo  19 Adam E Locke  18 Reedik Mägi  20 Evelin Mihailov  21 Eleonora Porcu  22 Joshua C Randall  23 André Scherag  24 Anna A E Vinkhuyzen  25 Harm-Jan Westra  16 Thomas W Winkler  26 Tsegaselassie Workalemahu  27 Jing Hua Zhao  9 Devin Absher  28 Eva Albrecht  29 Denise Anderson  30 Jeffrey Baron  31 Marian Beekman  32 Ayse Demirkan  33 Georg B Ehret  34 Bjarke Feenstra  35 Mary F Feitosa  36 Krista Fischer  37 Ross M Fraser  38 Anuj Goel  39 Jian Gong  40 Anne E Justice  41 Stavroula Kanoni  42 Marcus E Kleber  43 Kati Kristiansson  44 Unhee Lim  45 Vaneet Lotay  46 Julian C Lui  31 Massimo Mangino  47 Irene Mateo Leach  48 Carolina Medina-Gomez  49 Michael A Nalls  50 Dale R Nyholt  51 Cameron D Palmer  4 Dorota Pasko  1 Sonali Pechlivanis  52 Inga Prokopenko  53 Janina S Ried  29 Stephan Ripke  54 Dmitry Shungin  55 Alena Stancáková  56 Rona J Strawbridge  57 Yun Ju Sung  58 Toshiko Tanaka  59 Alexander Teumer  60 Stella Trompet  61 Sander W van der Laan  62 Jessica van Setten  63 Jana V Van Vliet-Ostaptchouk  64 Zhaoming Wang  65 Loïc Yengo  66 Weihua Zhang  67 Uzma Afzal  67 Johan Arnlöv  68 Gillian M Arscott  69 Stefania Bandinelli  70 Amy Barrett  71 Claire Bellis  72 Amanda J Bennett  71 Christian Berne  73 Matthias Blüher  74 Jennifer L Bolton  38 Yvonne Böttcher  75 Heather A Boyd  35 Marcel Bruinenberg  76 Brendan M Buckley  77 Steven Buyske  78 Ida H Caspersen  79 Peter S Chines  80 Robert Clarke  81 Simone Claudi-Boehm  82 Matthew Cooper  30 E Warwick Daw  36 Pim A De Jong  83 Joris Deelen  32 Graciela Delgado  84 Josh C Denny  85 Rosalie Dhonukshe-Rutten  86 Maria Dimitriou  87 Alex S F Doney  88 Marcus Dörr  89 Niina Eklund  90 Elodie Eury  66 Lasse Folkersen  57 Melissa E Garcia  91 Frank Geller  35 Vilmantas Giedraitis  92 Alan S Go  93 Harald Grallert  94 Tanja B Grammer  84 Jürgen Gräßler  95 Henrik Grönberg  96 Lisette C P G M de Groot  86 Christopher J Groves  71 Jeffrey Haessler  40 Per Hall  96 Toomas Haller  37 Goran Hallmans  97 Anke Hannemann  98 Catharina A Hartman  99 Maija Hassinen  100 Caroline Hayward  101 Nancy L Heard-Costa  102 Quinta Helmer  103 Gibran Hemani  3 Anjali K Henders  51 Hans L Hillege  104 Mark A Hlatky  105 Wolfgang Hoffmann  106 Per Hoffmann  107 Oddgeir Holmen  108 Jeanine J Houwing-Duistermaat  109 Thomas Illig  110 Aaron Isaacs  111 Alan L James  112 Janina Jeff  46 Berit Johansen  79 Åsa Johansson  113 Jennifer Jolley  114 Thorhildur Juliusdottir  17 Juhani Junttila  115 Abel N Kho  116 Leena Kinnunen  44 Norman Klopp  110 Thomas Kocher  117 Wolfgang Kratzer  118 Peter Lichtner  119 Lars Lind  120 Jaana Lindström  44 Stéphane Lobbens  66 Mattias Lorentzon  121 Yingchang Lu  122 Valeriya Lyssenko  123 Patrik K E Magnusson  96 Anubha Mahajan  17 Marc Maillard  124 Wendy L McArdle  125 Colin A McKenzie  126 Stela McLachlan  38 Paul J McLaren  127 Cristina Menni  47 Sigrun Merger  82 Lili Milani  37 Alireza Moayyeri  47 Keri L Monda  128 Mario A Morken  80 Gabriele Müller  129 Martina Müller-Nurasyid  130 Arthur W Musk  131 Narisu Narisu  80 Matthias Nauck  132 Ilja M Nolte  133 Markus M Nöthen  134 Laticia Oozageer  135 Stefan Pilz  136 Nigel W Rayner  137 Frida Renstrom  138 Neil R Robertson  139 Lynda M Rose  7 Ronan Roussel  140 Serena Sanna  22 Hubert Scharnagl  141 Salome Scholtens  133 Fredrick R Schumacher  142 Heribert Schunkert  143 Robert A Scott  9 Joban Sehmi  67 Thomas Seufferlein  118 Jianxin Shi  144 Karri Silventoinen  145 Johannes H Smit  146 Albert Vernon Smith  147 Joanna Smolonska  148 Alice V Stanton  149 Kathleen Stirrups  150 David J Stott  151 Heather M Stringham  18 Johan Sundström  120 Morris A Swertz  16 Ann-Christine Syvänen  152 Bamidele O Tayo  153 Gudmar Thorleifsson  154 Jonathan P Tyrer  155 Suzanne van Dijk  156 Natasja M van Schoor  157 Nathalie van der Velde  158 Diana van Heemst  159 Floor V A van Oort  160 Sita H Vermeulen  161 Niek Verweij  48 Judith M Vonk  133 Lindsay L Waite  28 Melanie Waldenberger  162 Roman Wennauer  163 Lynne R Wilkens  45 Christina Willenborg  164 Tom Wilsgaard  165 Mary K Wojczynski  36 Andrew Wong  166 Alan F Wright  101 Qunyuan Zhang  36 Dominique Arveiler  167 Stephan J L Bakker  168 John Beilby  169 Richard N Bergman  170 Sven Bergmann  171 Reiner Biffar  172 John Blangero  72 Dorret I Boomsma  173 Stefan R Bornstein  95 Pascal Bovet  174 Paolo Brambilla  175 Morris J Brown  176 Harry Campbell  38 Mark J Caulfield  177 Aravinda Chakravarti  178 Rory Collins  81 Francis S Collins  80 Dana C Crawford  179 L Adrienne Cupples  180 John Danesh  181 Ulf de Faire  182 Hester M den Ruijter  183 Raimund Erbel  184 Jeanette Erdmann  164 Johan G Eriksson  185 Martin Farrall  39 Ele Ferrannini  186 Jean Ferrières  187 Ian Ford  188 Nita G Forouhi  9 Terrence Forrester  126 Ron T Gansevoort  168 Pablo V Gejman  189 Christian Gieger  29 Alain Golay  190 Omri Gottesman  46 Vilmundur Gudnason  147 Ulf Gyllensten  113 David W Haas  191 Alistair S Hall  192 Tamara B Harris  91 Andrew T Hattersley  193 Andrew C Heath  194 Christian Hengstenberg  143 Andrew A Hicks  195 Lucia A Hindorff  196 Aroon D Hingorani  197 Albert Hofman  198 G Kees Hovingh  199 Steve E Humphries  200 Steven C Hunt  201 Elina Hypponen  202 Kevin B Jacobs  203 Marjo-Riitta Jarvelin  204 Pekka Jousilahti  44 Antti M Jula  44 Jaakko Kaprio  205 John J P Kastelein  199 Manfred Kayser  206 Frank Kee  207 Sirkka M Keinanen-Kiukaanniemi  208 Lambertus A Kiemeney  209 Jaspal S Kooner  210 Charles Kooperberg  40 Seppo Koskinen  44 Peter Kovacs  74 Aldi T Kraja  36 Meena Kumari  211 Johanna Kuusisto  212 Timo A Lakka  213 Claudia Langenberg  214 Loic Le Marchand  45 Terho Lehtimäki  215 Sara Lupoli  216 Pamela A F Madden  194 Satu Männistö  44 Paolo Manunta  217 André Marette  218 Tara C Matise  219 Barbara McKnight  220 Thomas Meitinger  221 Frans L Moll  222 Grant W Montgomery  51 Andrew D Morris  88 Andrew P Morris  223 Jeffrey C Murray  224 Mari Nelis  37 Claes Ohlsson  121 Albertine J Oldehinkel  99 Ken K Ong  225 Willem H Ouwehand  114 Gerard Pasterkamp  62 Annette Peters  226 Peter P Pramstaller  227 Jackie F Price  38 Lu Qi  228 Olli T Raitakari  229 Tuomo Rankinen  230 D C Rao  231 Treva K Rice  232 Marylyn Ritchie  233 Igor Rudan  234 Veikko Salomaa  44 Nilesh J Samani  235 Jouko Saramies  236 Mark A Sarzynski  230 Peter E H Schwarz  237 Sylvain Sebert  238 Peter Sever  239 Alan R Shuldiner  240 Juha Sinisalo  241 Valgerdur Steinthorsdottir  154 Ronald P Stolk  133 Jean-Claude Tardif  242 Anke Tönjes  74 Angelo Tremblay  243 Elena Tremoli  244 Jarmo Virtamo  44 Marie-Claude Vohl  245 Electronic Medical Records and Genomics (eMEMERGEGE) ConsortiumMIGen ConsortiumPAGEGE ConsortiumLifeLines Cohort StudyPhilippe Amouyel  246 Folkert W Asselbergs  247 Themistocles L Assimes  105 Murielle Bochud  174 Bernhard O Boehm  248 Eric Boerwinkle  249 Erwin P Bottinger  46 Claude Bouchard  230 Stéphane Cauchi  66 John C Chambers  250 Stephen J Chanock  251 Richard S Cooper  153 Paul I W de Bakker  252 George Dedoussis  87 Luigi Ferrucci  59 Paul W Franks  253 Philippe Froguel  254 Leif C Groop  255 Christopher A Haiman  142 Anders Hamsten  57 M Geoffrey Hayes  116 Jennie Hui  256 David J Hunter  257 Kristian Hveem  108 J Wouter Jukema  258 Robert C Kaplan  259 Mika Kivimaki  211 Diana Kuh  166 Markku Laakso  212 Yongmei Liu  260 Nicholas G Martin  51 Winfried März  261 Mads Melbye  262 Susanne Moebus  52 Patricia B Munroe  177 Inger Njølstad  165 Ben A Oostra  263 Colin N A Palmer  88 Nancy L Pedersen  96 Markus Perola  264 Louis Pérusse  265 Ulrike Peters  40 Joseph E Powell  3 Chris Power  266 Thomas Quertermous  105 Rainer Rauramaa  267 Eva Reinmaa  37 Paul M Ridker  268 Fernando Rivadeneira  49 Jerome I Rotter  269 Timo E Saaristo  270 Danish Saleheen  271 David Schlessinger  272 P Eline Slagboom  32 Harold Snieder  133 Tim D Spector  47 Konstantin Strauch  273 Michael Stumvoll  74 Jaakko Tuomilehto  274 Matti Uusitupa  275 Pim van der Harst  276 Henry Völzke  106 Mark Walker  277 Nicholas J Wareham  9 Hugh Watkins  39 H-Erich Wichmann  278 James F Wilson  38 Pieter Zanen  279 Panos Deloukas  280 Iris M Heid  281 Cecilia M Lindgren  282 Karen L Mohlke  12 Elizabeth K Speliotes  283 Unnur Thorsteinsdottir  284 Inês Barroso  285 Caroline S Fox  286 Kari E North  287 David P Strachan  288 Jacques S Beckmann  289 Sonja I Berndt  251 Michael Boehnke  18 Ingrid B Borecki  36 Mark I McCarthy  290 Andres Metspalu  21 Kari Stefansson  284 André G Uitterlinden  49 Cornelia M van Duijn  291 Lude Franke  16 Cristen J Willer  292 Alkes L Price  293 Guillaume Lettre  242 Ruth J F Loos  294 Michael N Weedon  1 Erik Ingelsson  295 Jeffrey R O'Connell  296 Goncalo R Abecasis  18 Daniel I Chasman  268 Michael E Goddard  297 Peter M Visscher  3 Joel N Hirschhorn  298 Timothy M Frayling  1
Collaborators, Affiliations
Free PMC article
Meta-Analysis

Defining the Role of Common Variation in the Genomic and Biological Architecture of Adult Human Height

Andrew R Wood et al. Nat Genet. .
Free PMC article

Abstract

Using genome-wide data from 253,288 individuals, we identified 697 variants at genome-wide significance that together explained one-fifth of the heritability for adult height. By testing different numbers of variants in independent studies, we show that the most strongly associated ∼2,000, ∼3,700 and ∼9,500 SNPs explained ∼21%, ∼24% and ∼29% of phenotypic variance. Furthermore, all common variants together captured 60% of heritability. The 697 variants clustered in 423 loci were enriched for genes, pathways and tissue types known to be involved in growth and together implicated genes and pathways not highlighted in earlier efforts, such as signaling by fibroblast growth factors, WNT/β-catenin and chondroitin sulfate-related genes. We identified several genes and pathways not previously connected with human skeletal growth, including mTOR, osteoglycin and binding of hyaluronic acid. Our results indicate a genetic architecture for human height that is characterized by a very large but finite number (thousands) of causal variants.

Figures

Figure 1
Figure 1. Regional association plots for loci with multiple association signals
Panels a to d highlight examples of multiple signals after approximate conditional joint multiple-SNP analysis GCTA-COJO analysis. SNPs are shaded and shaped based on the index SNP with which they are in strongest LD (r2>0.4). Panels ac show the majority of signals clustering in and around a single gene (ACAN, ADAMTS17, PTCH1, respectively) whereas panel d shows the multiple signals clustering through proximity.
Figure 2
Figure 2. Quantifying the variance explained by height associated SNPs at different levels of significance
The SNPs were selected from the approximate conditional and joint multiple SNPs association analysis using GCTA-COJO analysis with the target cohort being excluded from the meta-analysis. a, b, c, Partitioning the variance in the SNP-derived genetic predictor using a within-family analysis. The SNP-based predictor was adjusted by the first 20 PCs. The four variance-covariance components Vg, Ve, Cg and Ce are defined in Online Methods. d, Accuracy of predicting phenotype by the genetic predictor in unrelated individuals. The prediction R2 shown on the y-axis is the squared correlation between phenotype and predictor. The SNP-based predictor was adjusted by the first 20 PCs. The solid line is the average prediction R2 weighted by sample size over the five cohorts. The dashed line is the prediction accuracy inferred from the within-family prediction analysis (Equation 19 in Online Methods). e, The variance explained by the SNPs was estimated by the whole-genome estimation method in GCTA. The phenotype was adjusted by the first 20 PCs. Each error bar represents the standard error of the estimate. The estimates from all the five cohorts (B-PROOF, FRAM, QIMR, TwinGene and WTCCC-T2D) were averaged by the inverse-variance approach. The dashed line is the variance explained inferred from the within-family prediction analysis. In panels d and e, the number shown in each column is the number of SNPs used in the analysis.
Figure 3
Figure 3. Tissue enrichment combined with pruned gene set network
Genes within genome-wide significant height associated loci enriched for several relevant tissue annotations as well as gene sets. a, Genes in associated loci tended to be highly expressed in tissues related to chondrocytes and osteoblasts (cartilage, joints, and spine), and other musculoskeletal, cardiovascular and endocrine tissue-types. The analysis was conducted based on the DEPICT method and 37,427 human microarray samples. Tissue annotations are sorted by physiological system and significance. Significantly enriched (FDR<0.05) tissues are color-coded in black. b, Significantly enriched reconstituted gene sets (P-value<1×10−11, FDR<1×10−5) identified by DEPICT. Nodes represent reconstituted gene sets and are color-coded by statistical significance. Edge thickness between nodes is proportional to degree of gene overlap as measured by the Jaccard index. Nodes with gene overlap greater than 25% were collapsed into single meta nodes and marked by blue borders. c, reconstituted gene sets comprised by the Chordate Embryonic Development meta node, which represented several gene sets relevant to human height (e.g. ossification, embryonic skeletal system development, and limb development).

Similar articles

  • Hundreds of variants clustered in genomic loci and biological pathways affect human height.
    Lango Allen H, Estrada K, Lettre G, Berndt SI, Weedon MN, Rivadeneira F, Willer CJ, Jackson AU, Vedantam S, Raychaudhuri S, Ferreira T, Wood AR, Weyant RJ, Segrè AV, Speliotes EK, Wheeler E, Soranzo N, Park JH, Yang J, Gudbjartsson D, Heard-Costa NL, Randall JC, Qi L, Vernon Smith A, Mägi R, Pastinen T, Liang L, Heid IM, Luan J, Thorleifsson G, Winkler TW, Goddard ME, Sin Lo K, Palmer C, Workalemahu T, Aulchenko YS, Johansson A, Zillikens MC, Feitosa MF, Esko T, Johnson T, Ketkar S, Kraft P, Mangino M, Prokopenko I, Absher D, Albrecht E, Ernst F, Glazer NL, Hayward C, Hottenga JJ, Jacobs KB, Knowles JW, Kutalik Z, Monda KL, Polasek O, Preuss M, Rayner NW, Robertson NR, Steinthorsdottir V, Tyrer JP, Voight BF, Wiklund F, Xu J, Zhao JH, Nyholt DR, Pellikka N, Perola M, Perry JR, Surakka I, Tammesoo ML, Altmaier EL, Amin N, Aspelund T, Bhangale T, Boucher G, Chasman DI, Chen C, Coin L, Cooper MN, Dixon AL, Gibson Q, Grundberg E, Hao K, Juhani Junttila M, Kaplan LM, Kettunen J, König IR, Kwan T, Lawrence RW, Levinson DF, Lorentzon M, McKnight B, Morris AP, Müller M, Suh Ngwa J, Purcell S, Rafelt S, Salem RM, Salvi E, Sanna S, Shi J, Sovio U, Thompson JR, Turchin MC, Vandenput L, Verlaan DJ, Vitart V, White CC, Ziegler A, Almgren P, Balmforth AJ, Campbell H, Citterio L, De Grandi A, Dominiczak A, Duan J, Elliott P, Elosua R, Eriksson JG, Freimer NB, Geus EJ, Glorioso N, Haiqing S, Hartikainen AL, Havulinna AS, Hicks AA, Hui J, Igl W, Illig T, Jula A, Kajantie E, Kilpeläinen TO, Koiranen M, Kolcic I, Koskinen S, Kovacs P, Laitinen J, Liu J, Lokki ML, Marusic A, Maschio A, Meitinger T, Mulas A, Paré G, Parker AN, Peden JF, Petersmann A, Pichler I, Pietiläinen KH, Pouta A, Ridderstråle M, Rotter JI, Sambrook JG, Sanders AR, Schmidt CO, Sinisalo J, Smit JH, Stringham HM, Bragi Walters G, Widen E, Wild SH, Willemsen G, Zagato L, Zgaga L, Zitting P, Alavere H, Farrall M, McArdle WL, Nelis M, Peters MJ, Ripatti S, van Meurs JB, Aben KK, Ardlie KG, Beckmann JS, Beilby JP, Bergman RN, Bergmann S, Collins FS, Cusi D, den Heijer M, Eiriksdottir G, Gejman PV, Hall AS, Hamsten A, Huikuri HV, Iribarren C, Kähönen M, Kaprio J, Kathiresan S, Kiemeney L, Kocher T, Launer LJ, Lehtimäki T, Melander O, Mosley TH Jr, Musk AW, Nieminen MS, O'Donnell CJ, Ohlsson C, Oostra B, Palmer LJ, Raitakari O, Ridker PM, Rioux JD, Rissanen A, Rivolta C, Schunkert H, Shuldiner AR, Siscovick DS, Stumvoll M, Tönjes A, Tuomilehto J, van Ommen GJ, Viikari J, Heath AC, Martin NG, Montgomery GW, Province MA, Kayser M, Arnold AM, Atwood LD, Boerwinkle E, Chanock SJ, Deloukas P, Gieger C, Grönberg H, Hall P, Hattersley AT, Hengstenberg C, Hoffman W, Lathrop GM, Salomaa V, Schreiber S, Uda M, Waterworth D, Wright AF, Assimes TL, Barroso I, Hofman A, Mohlke KL, Boomsma DI, Caulfield MJ, Cupples LA, Erdmann J, Fox CS, Gudnason V, Gyllensten U, Harris TB, Hayes RB, Jarvelin MR, Mooser V, Munroe PB, Ouwehand WH, Penninx BW, Pramstaller PP, Quertermous T, Rudan I, Samani NJ, Spector TD, Völzke H, Watkins H, Wilson JF, Groop LC, Haritunians T, Hu FB, Kaplan RC, Metspalu A, North KE, Schlessinger D, Wareham NJ, Hunter DJ, O'Connell JR, Strachan DP, Wichmann HE, Borecki IB, van Duijn CM, Schadt EE, Thorsteinsdottir U, Peltonen L, Uitterlinden AG, Visscher PM, Chatterjee N, Loos RJ, Boehnke M, McCarthy MI, Ingelsson E, Lindgren CM, Abecasis GR, Stefansson K, Frayling TM, Hirschhorn JN. Lango Allen H, et al. Nature. 2010 Oct 14;467(7317):832-8. doi: 10.1038/nature09410. Epub 2010 Sep 29. Nature. 2010. PMID: 20881960 Free PMC article.
  • Methodological Considerations in Estimation of Phenotype Heritability Using Genome-Wide SNP Data, Illustrated by an Analysis of the Heritability of Height in a Large Sample of African Ancestry Adults.
    Chen F, He J, Zhang J, Chen GK, Thomas V, Ambrosone CB, Bandera EV, Berndt SI, Bernstein L, Blot WJ, Cai Q, Carpten J, Casey G, Chanock SJ, Cheng I, Chu L, Deming SL, Driver WR, Goodman P, Hayes RB, Hennis AJ, Hsing AW, Hu JJ, Ingles SA, John EM, Kittles RA, Kolb S, Leske MC, Millikan RC, Monroe KR, Murphy A, Nemesure B, Neslund-Dudas C, Nyante S, Ostrander EA, Press MF, Rodriguez-Gil JL, Rybicki BA, Schumacher F, Stanford JL, Signorello LB, Strom SS, Stevens V, Van Den Berg D, Wang Z, Witte JS, Wu SY, Yamamura Y, Zheng W, Ziegler RG, Stram AH, Kolonel LN, Le Marchand L, Henderson BE, Haiman CA, Stram DO. Chen F, et al. PLoS One. 2015 Jun 30;10(6):e0131106. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0131106. eCollection 2015. PLoS One. 2015. PMID: 26125186 Free PMC article.
  • Meta-analysis of Dense Genecentric Association Studies Reveals Common and Uncommon Variants Associated with Height.
    Lanktree MB, Guo Y, Murtaza M, Glessner JT, Bailey SD, Onland-Moret NC, Lettre G, Ongen H, Rajagopalan R, Johnson T, Shen H, Nelson CP, Klopp N, Baumert J, Padmanabhan S, Pankratz N, Pankow JS, Shah S, Taylor K, Barnard J, Peters BJ, Maloney CM, Lobmeyer MT, Stanton A, Zafarmand MH, Romaine SP, Mehta A, van Iperen EP, Gong Y, Price TS, Smith EN, Kim CE, Li YR, Asselbergs FW, Atwood LD, Bailey KM, Bhatt D, Bauer F, Behr ER, Bhangale T, Boer JM, Boehm BO, Bradfield JP, Brown M, Braund PS, Burton PR, Carty C, Chandrupatla HR, Chen W, Connell J, Dalgeorgou C, Boer Ad, Drenos F, Elbers CC, Fang JC, Fox CS, Frackelton EC, Fuchs B, Furlong CE, Gibson Q, Gieger C, Goel A, Grobbee DE, Hastie C, Howard PJ, Huang GH, Johnson WC, Li Q, Kleber ME, Klein BE, Klein R, Kooperberg C, Ky B, Lacroix A, Lanken P, Lathrop M, Li M, Marshall V, Melander O, Mentch FD, Meyer NJ, Monda KL, Montpetit A, Murugesan G, Nakayama K, Nondahl D, Onipinla A, Rafelt S, Newhouse SJ, Otieno FG, Patel SR, Putt ME, Rodriguez S, Safa RN, Sawyer DB, Schreiner PJ, Simpson C, Sivapalaratnam S, Srinivasan SR, Suver C, Swergold G, Sweitzer NK, Thomas KA, Thorand B, Timpson NJ, Tischfield S, Tobin M, Tomaszewski M, Verschuren WM, Wallace C, Winkelmann B, Zhang H, Zheng D, Zhang L, Zmuda JM, Clarke R, Balmforth AJ, Danesh J, Day IN, Schork NJ, de Bakker PI, Delles C, Duggan D, Hingorani AD, Hirschhorn JN, Hofker MH, Humphries SE, Kivimaki M, Lawlor DA, Kottke-Marchant K, Mega JL, Mitchell BD, Morrow DA, Palmen J, Redline S, Shields DC, Shuldiner AR, Sleiman PM, Smith GD, Farrall M, Jamshidi Y, Christiani DC, Casas JP, Hall AS, Doevendans PA, Christie JD, Berenson GS, Murray SS, Illig T, Dorn GW 2nd, Cappola TP, Boerwinkle E, Sever P, Rader DJ, Reilly MP, Caulfield M, Talmud PJ, Topol E, Engert JC, Wang K, Dominiczak A, Hamsten A, Curtis SP, Silverstein RL, Lange LA, Sabatine MS, Trip M, Saleheen D, Peden JF, Cruickshanks KJ, März W, O'Connell JR, Klungel OH, Wijmenga C, Maitland-van der Zee AH, Schadt EE, Johnson JA, Jarvik GP, Papanicolaou GJ; Hugh Watkins on behalf of PROCARDIS, Grant SF, Munroe PB, North KE, Samani NJ, Koenig W, Gaunt TR, Anand SS, van der Schouw YT; Meena Kumari on behalf of the Whitehall II Study and the WHII 50K Group, Soranzo N, Fitzgerald GA, Reiner A, Hegele RA, Hakonarson H, Keating BJ. Lanktree MB, et al. Am J Hum Genet. 2011 Jan 7;88(1):6-18. doi: 10.1016/j.ajhg.2010.11.007. Epub 2010 Dec 30. Am J Hum Genet. 2011. PMID: 21194676 Free PMC article.
  • Recent progress in the study of the genetics of height.
    Lettre G. Lettre G. Hum Genet. 2011 May;129(5):465-72. doi: 10.1007/s00439-011-0969-x. Epub 2011 Feb 22. Hum Genet. 2011. PMID: 21340692 Review.
  • Genome-wide association studies of human growth traits.
    Weedon MN. Weedon MN. Nestle Nutr Inst Workshop Ser. 2013;71:29-38. doi: 10.1159/000342541. Epub 2013 Jan 22. Nestle Nutr Inst Workshop Ser. 2013. PMID: 23502136 Review.
See all similar articles

Cited by 647 articles

See all "Cited by" articles

References

    1. Fisher RA. The correlation between relatives on the supposition of Mendelian inheritance. Trans R Soc. 1918;52:399–433.
    1. Silventoinen K, et al. Heritability of adult body height: a comparative study of twin cohorts in eight countries. Twin Res. 2003;6:399–408. - PubMed
    1. Visscher PM, et al. Assumption-free estimation of heritability from genome-wide identity-by-descent sharing between full siblings. PLoS Genet. 2006;2:e41. - PMC - PubMed
    1. Yang J, et al. Common SNPs explain a large proportion of the heritability for human height. Nat Genet. 2010;42:565–9. - PMC - PubMed
    1. Yang J, et al. Genome partitioning of genetic variation for complex traits using common SNPs. Nat Genet. 2011;43:519–25. - PMC - PubMed

Publication types

MeSH terms

Grant support

Feedback