Background: Febrile neutropenia (FN) is a life-threatening condition that requires urgent management in the emergency department (ED). Recent progress in the treatment of neutropenic fever has underscored the importance of risk stratification. In this study, we aimed to determine independent factors for prediction of poor outcomes in patients with FN.
Material and methods: We retrospectively evaluated 200 chemotherapy-induced febrile neutropenic patients who visited the ED. Upon arrival at the ED, clinical data, including sex, age, vital signs, underlying systemic diseases, laboratory test results, estimated GFR, blood cultures, CRP, radiologic examinations, and Multinational Association of Supportive Care in Cancer (MASCC) score of all febrile neutropenic patients were obtained. Outcomes were categorized as "poor" if serious complications during hospitalization, including death, occurred.
Results: The platelet count <50 000 cells/mm3 (OR 3.90, 95% CI 1.62-9.43), pulmonary infiltration (OR 3.45, 95% CI 1.48-8.07), hypoproteinemia <6 g/dl (OR 3.30, 95% CI 1.27-8.56), respiratory rate >24/min (OR 8.75, 95% CI 2.18-35.13), and MASCC score <21 (OR 9.20, 95% CI 3.98-21.26) were determined as independent risk factors for the prediction of death. The platelet count <50 000 cells/mm3 (OR 3.93, 95% CI 1.42-10.92), serum CRP >50 mg/dl (OR 3.80, 95% CI 1.68-8.61), hypoproteinemia (OR 7.81, 95% CI 3.43-17.78), eGFR ≤90 ML/min/1.73 m2 (OR 3.06, 95% CI 1.13-8.26), and MASCC score <21 (OR 3.45, 95% CI 1.53-7.79) were determined as independent risk factors for the prediction of poor clinical outcomes of FN patients. Platelet count, protein level, respiratory rate, pulmonary infiltration, CRP, MASCC score, and eGFR were shown to have a significant association with outcome.
Conclusions: The results of our study may help emergency medicine physicians to prevent serious complications with proper use of simple independent risk factors besides MASCC score.