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Comparative Study
, 30 (3), 227-41

Subgingival Microbiome in Smokers and Non-Smokers in Korean Chronic Periodontitis Patients

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Comparative Study

Subgingival Microbiome in Smokers and Non-Smokers in Korean Chronic Periodontitis Patients

J-H Moon et al. Mol Oral Microbiol.

Abstract

Smoking is a major environmental factor associated with periodontal diseases. However, we still have a very limited understanding of the relationship between smoking and subgingival microflora in the global population. Here, we investigated the composition of subgingival bacterial communities from the pooled plaque samples of smokers and non-smokers, 134 samples in each group, in Korean patients with moderate chronic periodontitis using 16S rRNA gene-based pyrosequencing. A total of 17,927 reads were analyzed and classified into 12 phyla, 126 genera, and 394 species. Differences in bacterial communities between smokers and non-smokers were examined at all phylogenetic levels. The genera Fusobacterium, Fretibacterium, Streptococcus, Veillonella, Corynebacterium, TM7, and Filifactor were abundant in smokers. On the other hand, Prevotella, Campylobacter, Aggregatibacter, Veillonellaceae GQ422718, Haemophilus, and Prevotellaceae were less abundant in smokers. Among species-level taxa occupying > 1% of whole subgingival microbiome of smokers, higher abundance (≥ 2.0-fold compared to non-smokers) of seven species or operational taxonomic units (OTUs) was found: Fusobacterium nucleatum, Neisseria sicca, Neisseria oralis, Corynebacterium matruchotii, Veillonella dispar, Filifactor alocis, and Fretibacterium AY349371. On the other hand, lower abundance of 11 species or OTUs was found in smokers: Neisseria elongata, six Prevotella species or OTUs, Fusobacterium canifelinum, Aggregatibacter AM420165, Selenomonas OTU, and Veillonellaceae GU470897. Species richness and evenness were similar between the groups whereas diversity was greater in smokers than non-smokers. Collectively, the results of the present study indicate that differences exist in the subgingival bacterial community between smoker and non-smoker patients with chronic moderate periodontitis in Korea, suggesting that cigarette smoking considerably affects subgingival bacterial ecology.

Keywords: Korean; periodontitis; pyrosequencing; smoking; subgingival microflora.

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