Background: Exportin 1 (XPO1), also called chromosome region maintenance 1 (CRM1), is the sole exportin mediating transport of many multiple tumor suppressor proteins out of the nucleus.
Aim and methods: To verify the hypothesis that XPO1 inhibition affects prostate cancer (PCa) metastatic potential, orally available, potent and selective, SINE compounds, Selinexor (KPT- 330) and KPT-251, were tested in preclinical models known to generate bone lesions and systemic tumor spread.
Results: In vitro, Selinexor reduced both secretion of proteases and ability to migrate and invade of PCa cells. SINEs impaired secretion of pro-angiogenic and pro-osteolytic cytokines and reduced osteoclastogenesis in RAW264.7 cells. In the intra-prostatic growth model, Selinexor reduced DU145 tumor growth by 41% and 61% at the doses of 4 mg/Kg qd/5 days and 10 mg/Kg q2dx3 weeks, respectively, as well as the incidence of macroscopic visceral metastases. In a systemic metastasis model, following intracardiac injection of PCb2 cells, 80% (8/10) of controls, 10% (1/10) Selinexor- and 20% (2/10) KPT-251-treated animals developed radiographic evidence of lytic bone lesions. Similarly, after intra-tibial injection, the lytic areas were higher in controls than in Selinexor and KPT-251 groups. Analogously, the serum levels of osteoclast markers (mTRAP and type I collagen fragment, CTX), were significantly higher in controls than in Selinexor- and KPT-251-treated animals. Importantly, overall survival and disease-free survival were significantly higher in Selinexor- and KPT-251-treated animals when compared to controls.
Conclusions: Selective blockade of XPO1-dependent nuclear export represents a completely novel approach for the treatment of advanced and metastatic PCa.