Linear ubiquitination is crucial for innate and adaptive immunity. The linear ubiquitin chain assembly complex (LUBAC), consisting of HOIL-1, HOIP, and SHARPIN, is the only known ubiquitin ligase that generates linear ubiquitin linkages. HOIP is the catalytically active LUBAC component. Here, we show that both constitutive and Tie2-Cre-driven HOIP deletion lead to aberrant endothelial cell death, resulting in defective vascularization and embryonic lethality at midgestation. Ablation of tumor necrosis factor receptor 1 (TNFR1) prevents cell death, vascularization defects, and death at midgestation. HOIP-deficient cells are more sensitive to death induction by both tumor necrosis factor (TNF) and lymphotoxin-α (LT-α), and aberrant complex-II formation is responsible for sensitization to TNFR1-mediated cell death in the absence of HOIP. Finally, we show that HOIP's catalytic activity is necessary for preventing TNF-induced cell death. Hence, LUBAC and its linear-ubiquitin-forming activity are required for maintaining vascular integrity during embryogenesis by preventing TNFR1-mediated endothelial cell death.
Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.