Association of dietary fiber intake with serum total cholesterol and low density lipoprotein cholesterol levels in Urban Asian-Indian adults with type 2 diabetes

Indian J Endocrinol Metab. 2014 Sep;18(5):624-30. doi: 10.4103/2230-8210.139215.


Context: There is little data correlating dietary fibre (DF) intake and cardiovascular risk in Asian Indians with diabetes.

Aim: To assess the DF intake and its association with lipid profile (total serum cholesterol and low density lipoprotein [LDL] - cholesterol levels) in urban Asian Indians with diabetes.

Subjects and methods: Dietary assessment using validated Food Frequency Questionnaire was conducted in 1191 free-living adults with known diabetes in the Chennai Urban Rural Epidemiology Study. Subjects taking medication for dyslipidemia, and those with cardiovascular disease and implausible energy intake (n = 262) were excluded, leaving 929 participants. Anthropometric and relevant biochemical parameters were measured using standardized techniques.

Results: Diabetic individuals who consumed DF < median intake (29 g/day) had a higher prevalence of hypercholesterolemia (49.5% vs. 40.1% [P = 0.01]) and higher LDL cholesterol (46.2% vs. 35.5% [P = 0.001]) than those in the > median intake of DF group. The risk of hypercholesterolemia (odds ratio [OR] =1.38 [95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.02-1.85], P = 0.04), and high LDL cholesterol (OR: 1.43 [95% CI: 1.06-1.94], P = 0.02) was higher among those whose DF intake was less than the median. Serum triglycerides and high density lipoprotein cholesterol were not associated with DF intake. The main sources of DF were vegetables and legumes.

Conclusion: In urban Asian Indians with diabetes, lower DF intake is positively related to total cholesterol and LDL cholesterol levels.

Keywords: Asian Indians; Chennai urban rural epidemiology study; dietary fibre; low density lipoprotein; total cholesterol; type 2 diabetes.