Context: Triphala, an Indian Ayurvedic herbal formulation which contains Terminalia chebula Retz. (Combretaceae), Terminalia bellerica (Gaertn.) Roxb. (Combretaceae) and Emblica officinalis L. (Phyllanthaceae), is used for treating bowel-related complications, inflammatory disorders, and gastritis.
Objective: To determine the anti-arthritic effect of triphala in arthritis-induced rats. For comparison purpose, the non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug indomethacin was used.
Materials and methods: Arthritis was induced in Wistar albino rats by intradermal injection of complete Freund's adjuvant (0.1 ml) into the foot pad of right hind paw. Triphala (100 mg/kg b wt, i.p.) was administered from day 11 to 18 after the administration of complete Freund's adjuvant. The activities/levels of lysosomal enzymes, glycoproteins, antioxidant status, and lipid peroxidation were determined in the paw tissues of arthritic rats. In addition, the inflammatory mediators were also measured in both the serum and the paw tissue of arthritic rats.
Results: The levels/activities of lipid peroxidation (∼41.5%), glycoproteins (hexose ∼43.3%, hexosamine ∼36.5%, and sialic acid ∼33.7%), lysosomal enzymes (acid phosphatase ∼52.4%, β-galactosidase ∼22.9%, N-acetyl β-glucosaminidase ∼22.1%, and cathepsin-D ∼27.7%) were found to be decreased and the antioxidant status (SOD ∼75.6%, CAT ∼62.7%, GPx ∼55.8%, GST ∼82.1%, and GSH ∼72.7%) was increased in the paw tissues of triphala-treated arthritic rats. In addition, the inflammatory mediator levels in serum (TNF-α ∼75.5%, IL-1β ∼99%, VEGF ∼75.2%, MCP-1 ∼76.4%, and PGE2 ∼69.9%) and in paw tissues (TNF-α ∼71.6%, IL-1β ∼75.5%, VEGF ∼55.1%, MCP-1 ∼69.1%, and PGE2 ∼66.8%) were found to be suppressed.
Conclusion: Triphala has a promising anti-inflammatory effect in the inflamed paw of arthritis-induced rats.
Keywords: Inflammatory mediators; lysosomal enzymes; rheumatoid arthritis.