Logic gate system with three outputs and three inputs based on switchable electrocatalysis of glucose by glucose oxidase entrapped in chitosan films

Chem Asian J. 2015 Jan;10(1):225-30. doi: 10.1002/asia.201402927. Epub 2014 Oct 7.


A logic-gate system with three outputs and three inputs was developed based on the bioelectrocatalysis of glucose by glucose oxidase (GOx) entrapped in chitosan films on the electrode surface by means of ferrocenedicarboxylic acid (Fc(COOH)2 ). Cyclic voltammetric (CV) signals of Fc(COOH)2 exhibited pH-triggered on/off behavior owing to electrostatic interactions between the film and the probe at different pH levels. The addition of glucose greatly increased the oxidation peak current (Ipa ) through the electrocatalytic reaction. pH and glucose were selected as two inputs. As a reversible inhibitor of GOx, Cu(2+) was chosen as the third input. The combination of three inputs led to Ipa with different values according to different mechanisms, which were defined as three outputs with two thresholds. The logic gate with three outputs by using one type of enzyme provided a novel model to build logic circuits based on biomacromolecules, which might be applied to the intelligent medical diagnostics as smart biosensors in the future.

Keywords: biosensors; carbohydrates; electrochemistry; enzyme catalysis; logic gates.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Biocatalysis
  • Biosensing Techniques
  • Chitosan / chemistry*
  • Dicarboxylic Acids / chemistry
  • Electrochemical Techniques
  • Electrodes
  • Enzymes, Immobilized / chemistry
  • Enzymes, Immobilized / metabolism
  • Ferrous Compounds / chemistry
  • Glucose / chemistry
  • Glucose / metabolism*
  • Glucose Oxidase / chemistry
  • Glucose Oxidase / metabolism*
  • Hydrogen-Ion Concentration
  • Metallocenes
  • Oxidation-Reduction
  • Static Electricity


  • Dicarboxylic Acids
  • Enzymes, Immobilized
  • Ferrous Compounds
  • Metallocenes
  • Chitosan
  • Glucose Oxidase
  • Glucose
  • ferrocene