Introduction: This phase 3 trial compared the safety and efficacy of edoxaban, an oral direct factor Xa inhibitor, with enoxaparin sodium (enoxaparin) for thromboprophylaxis after total knee arthroplasty (TKA) in patients in Japan and Taiwan.
Materials and methods: In this randomized, double-blind, double-dummy study, patients received oral edoxaban 30 mg once daily beginning 6 to 24 hours postsurgery or enoxaparin 2000 IU (equivalent to 20 mg) subcutaneously twice daily beginning 24 to 36 hours postsurgery for 11 to 14 days. The primary efficacy endpoint was the composite of symptomatic pulmonary embolism and symptomatic and asymptomatic deep vein thrombosis. Safety endpoints included the incidence of major bleeding, clinically relevant non-major (CRNM) bleeding, major bleeding or CRNM bleeding, all bleeding events, adverse events, and adverse drug reactions.
Results: Of 716 patients enrolled, 360 and 356 were randomized to receive edoxaban or enoxaparin, respectively. The primary efficacy outcome occurred in 22/299 (7.4%) and 41/295 (13.9%) patients in the edoxaban and enoxaparin groups, respectively (relative risk reduction=46.8%), indicating non-inferiority (P <0.001) and superiority (P=0.010) of edoxaban versus enoxaparin. In the edoxaban and enoxaparin groups, major bleeding occurred in 4/354 (1.1%) versus 1/349 (0.3%) patients (P=0.373); major or CRNM bleeding occurred in 22/354 (6.2%) versus 13/349 (3.7%) patients (P=0.129), respectively.
Conclusions: Edoxaban 30 mg once daily was more effective for thromboprophylaxis than subcutaneous enoxaparin 2000 IU twice daily following TKA and demonstrated a similar incidence of bleeding events.
Trial registration: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01181102.
Keywords: edoxaban; enoxaparin; factor Xa; knee replacement arthroplasty; venous thromboembolism.
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