Subcell Biochem. 2014:73:7-29. doi: 10.1007/978-94-017-9343-8_2.


Urea is generated by the urea cycle enzymes, which are mainly in the liver but are also ubiquitously expressed at low levels in other tissues. The metabolic process is altered in several conditions such as by diets, hormones, and diseases. Urea is then eliminated through fluids, especially urine. Blood urea nitrogen (BUN) has been utilized to evaluate renal function for decades. New roles for urea in the urinary system, circulation system, respiratory system, digestive system, nervous system, etc., were reported lately, which suggests clinical significance of urea.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Biomarkers / blood
  • Blood Urea Nitrogen
  • Humans
  • Metabolic Networks and Pathways*
  • Models, Biological*
  • Molecular Structure
  • Urea / blood
  • Urea / chemistry
  • Urea / metabolism*


  • Biomarkers
  • Urea