We report that calf brain microtubules prepared without nucleotide contain, in addition to kinesin and dynein, a polypeptide of 100 kd that could be dissociated by nucleotide. The protein was selectively extracted from microtubules using a combination of GTP and AMP-PNP. The extract contained microtubule-stimulated (6-fold) MgATPase activity that partitioned into two components upon further purification: the 100 kd polypeptide and a soluble activating fraction. The 100 kd protein induced microtubules to form hexagonally packed bundles containing periodic cross bridges spaced 13 nm apart. In the presence of ATP and the activating fraction, bundles fragmented, elongated, and exhibited other behavior indicative of sliding between microtubules. These findings indicate that the 100 kd protein is part of a novel mechanochemical enzyme, which we term "dynamin", that may mediate microtubule sliding in vivo.